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KAIST-THE Innovation & Impact Summit Touts New Roles of Higher Education
Global leaders from 115 institutions across 35 countries reaffirmed that the roles of universities are evolving to become much broader and more diverse, and redefined the impact of higher education last week at KAIST. During the THE Innovation and Impact Summit hosted by KAIST in partnership with the Times Higher Education, global leaders in higher education, industry, and government all agreed that universities should respond better in order to have a lasting and sustainable impact on society. In an effort to encourage social responsibility and boost the impact of universities, the THE first launched the University Impact Rankings based on the Sustainable Developed Goals declared during the 2015 UN summit. The THE’s University Impact Rankings are the first global attempt to evaluate universities’ impact on society, rather than only focusing on research and teaching performance. The new metrics include universities’ policies and outcomes based on 11 of the 17 UN SDGs. More than 500 institutions from 75 countries submitted data for the new rankings. The top three scores from ten of the SDGs were combined with SDG 17 to calculate the final score. The University of Auckland placed first in this new ranking while KAIST ranked fourth in the category of SDG 9 on Industry, Innovation, and Infrastructure. President Shin said, “KAIST has dedicated itself to producing knowledge that could serve as a growth engine for national development over the past half century. Now, taking on the UN’s 17 SDGs as new indicators, we will do our utmost to become a leading university in creating global value and better serving the world.” (Phil Baty, chief knowledge officer of THE) Phil Baty, chief knowledge officer at THE said, “I would like to applaud KAIST for being a pioneer, taking a new way of looking at university excellence. KAIST’s performance was strong overall, but especially outstanding in SDG 9. Its data proves that the university is fully engaged in knowledge creation and entrepreneur activities.” Keynote speakers all shared their views on disruptive knowledge and how to adjust to the new AI technology-driven, socio-economic culture. (from left: Lino Guzzella, former ETH Zurich President and Sung-Chul Shin, KAIST President) Lino Guzzella, former ETH Zurich President, argued in his keynote speech that there has been amazing growth in university enrollments, coupled with a substantial mismatch between what universities teach and what society needs. He went on to say that universities should look beyond the classical university model and find a way to train the next generation in a way that ensures society has a role for them. “The likelihood of each generation having a higher income at the age of 30 than their parents has diminished dramatically,” he said. He provided data that showed that middle-income professions have been declining, and between 2000 and 2010 the number of very high-skilled jobs and very low-skilled jobs doubled, whereas the number of those in the middle increased far more slowly. He expected that this trend will continue, saying that universities should focus on instilling critical thinking, interdisciplinary studies, and ‘productive failure’ to students in the new era. He also shared the secret recipe for the reduced youth unemployment statistics in Switzerland. He said that the education system in Switzerland was designed so that only 20 percent of an age cohort undertakes a classical university education, while 80 percent do vocational training run by companies. They learn what is really needed by industry and society from the early stages of their careers, so no mismatch exists. (Young Suk Chi, chairman of Elsevier) Meanwhile, Young Suk Chi, chairman of Elsevier, claimed in his keynote speech that universities should stop evaluating researchers only on their publication and citation counts. He said that doing so was driving academics to turn out multiple papers based on a single study in a practice called ‘salami publishing.’ Chi said, “It’s a responsibility we bear together, and we certainly, as industry associates, have to work hard to educate the world that publishing isn’t everything, but the impact is. But the impact is not just citations, either.” Chi said that there is a global ‘tech-lash’ that has arisen due to falling trust in major IT companies. On the other hand, universities are trustworthy. People perceive that universities are not merely seeking profits, and they can take advantage of it for fostering next generation researchers and CEOs, which can stand for ‘Chief Ethics Officers’. “Universities are collaborative,” said Chi. Universities’ research will flourish with more collaboration at a global scale. Collaborative research shows higher citation and impact rates. Instead of competing against one another, universities and industries should collaborate for advancing research. He argued further saying, “If they can uphold this reputation, universities, not companies, will be the institutions that people trust to influence and educate the next generation. Universities, in contrast to industry, have long-term vision, can facilitate collaborative research, and are trustworthy.” (President Joseph Aoun, Northeastern University) In the last day’s keynote speech, President Joseph Aoun of Northeastern University said that higher education risks becoming obsolete if it does not fully embrace lifelong learning. He also talked about preparing learners to succeed in the AI age. He said that lifelong learners made up 74 percent of learners in the US, and only 34 percent of universities in the country fill their seats, but higher education has not yet incorporated lifelong learning as part of its core mission. He said that lifelong learning is going to require that we listen to the needs of society, of both individuals and organizations. He also called for institutions to create curricula based on what he termed ‘humanics’ – the integration of technological literacy, data literacy, and human literacy, and said that this should be combined with experiential learning. (from left: So Young Kim, Guohua Chen, Aqil Jamal, Mooyoung Jung and Max Lu) (from left: Hubo and Duncan Ross, chief data officer of THE)
Vietnamese Alumni of Korean S&T Universities Gather in Hanoi
(Vietnamese KAIST alumni gather in Hanoi on November 24.) (Dr.Huong Minh Nguyen at the Institute of Biotechnology in the Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology (VAST). She is the representative of Vietnamese KAIST alumni.) Some came from Ho Chi Minh and some even flew in from Singapore. For those KAIST alumni who gathered in Hanoi, the trip was well worth it. More than 100 Vietnamese alumni of KAIST, GIST, and UST attended the reunion in Hanoi on November 24. Presidents and vice president from three universities welcomed them and celebrated their successful careers after returning home or starting careers in other countries. The reunion was co-hosted by KAIST, UST, and GIST in an effort to make a platform for continued networking for scientists who have studied at Korea’s science and technology universities. This joint reunion will be expected to include other science and technology universities and institutes in the future. Among 1,873 international KAIST alumni from 106 countries, the number of Vietnamese graduates is the most dominant with 262 alumni, 14% of the total international alumni. Welcoming them, KAIST Vice President Soohyun Kim said that he was very impressed that all of the alumni are making a very impressive stride in their fields. “You will be a big asset to make your country grow. You will also be a bridge for future collaborations with your institutions and KAIST and Korea. Vietnam holds great potential for future prosperity especially in science and technology and we look forward to seeing this network continue to benefit both countries.” Vice President Kim said all of the presidents shared the idea to make this gathering a regular event. “Other S&T universities will join to hold joint reunions in other countries in the future,” he added. Dr. Huong Minh Nguyen at the Institute of Biotechnology in the Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology (VAST) is one of 22 KAIST alumni who joined the reunion and supported the idea. She is also the representative of Vietnamese KAIST alumni. Dr. Nguyen, who earned her MS and PhD in the Department of Biological Sciences in 2013, spent five and half years at KAIST. “All the members at the lab were taking care of each other. When I joined the lab back then, they treated me as a ‘baby sister’ in a family and our relationship grew like a sister and brotherhood. I still appreciate the bonding relationship we could make with our colleagues.” She cites a supporting culture, a competent educational system that places a focus on practicality, and rich resources that help researchers try whatever they want as the distinct advantages of a KAIST education. “I never heard my professor saying “No” to any of my suggestions in conducting research. Professors and lab members put all their efforts, resources, and facilities to getting my research started. They helped me obtain all the resources that I needed. It was a huge encouragement to me,” she added. She started her Masters, along with four Vietnamese colleagues, right after graduating from the Hanoi University of Natural Sciences, a top science university in Vietnam. Their experience at KAIST during a 4-week exchange program during undergraduates made them decide their academic destination without any doubt. All of them finished their PhDs in 2013. Two of them moved back home and the two others are now in the US and Germany as postdoctoral fellows. “At that time, I could go to other countries for my further studies. But I already experienced KAIST for a month when I was an undergraduate, so I was not hesitant to go to KAIST. All of the classes are in English so, for students who do not speak in Korean, language does not bring any problems in studying and conducting research.” She said that KAIST alumni are enjoying very successful careers in Vietnam and many foreign countries. “We do not have any problems choosing our careers back home and other countries we wanted to work in.” However, like many PhD candidates who feel pressure about their studies and an uncertain future, her days at KAIST also included challenging times while adjusting to Korean culture. She took Korean classes for three semesters voluntarily at the KAIST Language Center to better understand Korea and her lab members. Her efforts paid off well. She could easily communicate with her colleagues and felt she became a real part of the inner group. But the stress remained to prove herself in research and she still had to deal with some bias. “I know some people think Vietnam is behind Korea. Many people think that we are not as good as Korean students because we are from Vietnam. I desperately wanted to prove that I am as good as my peers.” Studying together with Korean and other international PhD candidates, she realized that everyone has their own purposes and pressures. “Even though there are minor differences, every PhD candidate has the same issues with their uncertain futures. It was quite comforting when we shared that it’s not only my problem. To understand that it’s a problem we all share comforts us a lot and we came to support each other. To better help students release such pressure and stress, she said the university needs to create more diverse institutional channels to communicate with them. “Looking back, I was younger and less competent to speak up about when we were stressed and needed to ask for help. I hope students can begin to release their pressure and stress through diverse channels and resolve the problems,” she said. Asked about her future plans, she replied, “I don’t think I can do anything better than what I am doing now. I enjoy what I am doing now at my institute. But in the near very future, I want to visit Korea and KAIST again.”
OUIC Presents the Six Most Promising Techs Transferrable to Local SMEs
KAIST will showcase the six most promising technologies for small and medium enterprises (SMEs) on November 14 in the Academic Cultural Complex. To strengthen the competitive edge of local SMEs in Daejeon, the Office of University-Industry made a survey of their technological needs and came up with the six most promising technologies. Developers will introduce their technologies during the session.Besides the introduction of the promising technologies, the session will also provide a program named University to Business (U2B) to match up technologies according to the SMEs’ needs. SMEs who wish to engage in technology transfers can receive counseling and other support programs during the session.First, Professor Seok-Hyung Bae from the Department of Industrial Design will present a technology for controlling cooperation robots. Professor Bae inserted flexible materials between the controllers to allow robots to use both hands stably and operate more accurately and swiftly. It can be applied to automatic robots, industrial robots, and service robots.Professor Hyun Myung from the Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering will demonstrate a robot navigation system in a dynamic indoor and outdoor environment, which can be applied to robotics in logistics, smart factories, and autonomous vehicles. Providing robust simultaneous localization and mapping systems, this technology shows high-performing navigation with low-cost sensors.Meanwhile, Professor Siyoung Choi from the Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering will introduce a technology for forming stable adhesive emulsions. An emulsion is a stable mixture of water and oil. Conventionally, a small amount of surfactant is added to stabilize an emulsion. Here, Professor Choi developed a stable emulsion system without using any chemical substances. This technology can be applied to various fields, including the cosmetics, pharmaceutical, semiconductor, and painting industries. The session will also present smart IoTs platform technology developed by Professor Jinhong Yang from the KAIST Institute for IT Convergence. His technology minimizes errors occurring when multiple IoT devices are connected simultaneously. Professor Yong Keun Park from the Department of Physics will introduce a technology for measuring glycated hemoglobin by using the optical properties of red blood cells. This technology can be applied to make low-cost, small-sized measuring equipment. It can also be used for vitro diagnoses including diabetes, cardiovascular disorders, tumors, kidney disease, and infectious diseases. Professor Yong Man Ro from the School of Electrical Engineering will show technology for biometric access control. Conventional technologies for face recognition fall behind other biometrics. Professor Ro and his team developed a facial dynamics interpreting network which allows very accurate facial recognition by interpreting the relationships between facial local dynamics and estimating facial traits. This technology can be applied to security and communication in finance, computers, and information system.KAIST President Sung-Chul Shin said, “KAIST will continue to support SMEs to have stronger competitiveness in the market. Through technology transfer, we will drive innovation in technological commercialization where a university’s research and development creates economic value.”
Participation in the 2018 Bio-Digital City Workshop in Paris
(A student make a presentatiion during the Bio-Digital City Workshop in Paris last month.) KAIST students explored ideas for developing future cities during the 2018 Bio-Digital City Workshop held in Paris last month. This international workshop hosted by Cité des Sciences et de l'Industrie was held under the theme “Biomimicry, Digital City and Big Data.” During the workshop from July 10 to July 20, students teamed up with French counterparts to develop innovative urban design ideas. Cité des Sciences et de l'Industrie is the largest science museum in Europe and is operated by Universcience, a specialized institute of science and technology in France. Professor Seongju Chang from the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Professor Jihyun Lee of the Graduate School of Culture Technology Students led the students group. Participants presented their ideas and findings on new urban solutions that combine biomimetic systems and digital technology. Each student group analyzed a special natural ecosystem such as sand dunes, jellyfish communities, or mangrove forests and conducted research to extract algorithms for constructing sustainable urban building complexes based on the results. The extracted algorithm was used to conceive a sustainable building complex forming a part of the urban environment by applying it to the actual Parisian city segment given as the virtual site for the workshop. Students from diverse background in both countries participated in this convergence workshop. KAIST students included Ph.D. candidate Hyung Min Cho, undergraduates Min-Woo Jeong, Seung-Hwan Cha, and Sang-Jun Park from the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, undergraduate Kyeong-Keun Seo from the Department of Materials Science and Engineering, JiWhan Jeong (Master’s course) from the Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, Ph.D. candidate Bo-Yoon Zang from the Graduate School of Culture Technology. They teamed up with French students from diverse backgrounds, including Design/Science, Visual Design, Geography, Computer Science and Humanities and Social Science. This workshop will serve as another opportunity to expand academic and human exchange efforts in the domain of smart and sustainable cities with Europe in the future as the first international cooperation activity of KAIST and the Paris La Villette Science Museum. Professor Seong-Ju Chang who led the research group said, "We will continue to establish a cooperative relationship between KAIST and the European scientific community. This workshop is a good opportunity to demonstrate the competence of KAIST students and their scientific and technological excellence on the international stage.”
A New Efficient Oxide Coating Technology to Improve Fuel Cells
A new efficient oxide coating technology that can be applied in less than five minutes could lead to dramatic improvements in the lifetime and performance of fuel cells. The fundamental principle behind this approach is maximizing the oxygen reduction reaction site of a platinum thin-film electrode, preventing the electrodes from aggregating at high temperatures. Fuel cells have emerged as a clean electricity generation system that does not pollute the air. In particular, solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are beginning to gain a great deal of attention due to their higher power generation efficiency compared to other fuel cells. It is also advantageous to use other power sources than expensive hydrogen fuel. However, the high costs and insufficient lifetimes caused by high temperatures needed to operate the solid oxide fuel cells have remained significant challenges to commercialization. Recently, attempts to lower the operating temperature (< 600°C) of these devices by introducing thin-film processes have drew attention of researchers, with the resulting products known as thin-film-based solid oxide fuel cells. In order to create enhanced device performance at lower temperatures, the research team, led by Professor WooChul Jung in the Department of Materials Science and Engineering, applied and developed oxide coating technology to maximize the oxygen reduction reaction sites of a platinum thin-film electrode and to prevent platinum electrodes from thermal aggregating. The team succeeded in over-coating a platinum electrode with a new coating material called praseodymium-doped ceria (Pr,Ce)O2-, which has high conductivity for both electrons and oxygen ions and excellent catalytic properties for oxygen reduction reactions. As a result, electrode resistance was reduced by more than 1000 times, creating the potential for these electrodes to be used in high-temperature electrochemical cells. In addition, they proposed that the high performance of thin-film-based oxide fuel cells’ oxygen electrodes could be realized through the nano-structuring of (Pr,Ce)O2-δ without any platinum. Professor Jung said, “The electrode coating technology used in this study is of great technical value because of the utilization of affordable and mass-produced electrochemical deposition.” He added, “In the future, this technology will be feasible for replacing platinum electrodes in thin-film-based oxide fuel cells, and we expect that the affordable prices of this fuel cell will eventually boost market competitiveness.” This research was described in Advanced Energy Materials in July and was featured as the Inside Front Cover and video abstract. It was supported by the Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP) and the Korea Electric Power Corporation (KEPCO) Research Institute. Figure 1. The change of electrode activity with and without overcoated (Pr,Ce)O2-δ nanostructures.
Open Online Course in Science and Technology, STAR-MOOC
Four universities specializing in science and technology, along with POSTECH and UST, teamed up to establish programs for innovation in education programs, responding to the Fourth Industrial Revolution. KAIST held an opening ceremony for the Science & Technology Advanced Research - Massive Open Online Course (STAR-MOOC) and signed an MoU with GIST, DGIST, UNIST, POSTECH, and UST. STAR-MOOC was launched on February 26 to provide educational service to the public. It is a joint platform where people can take courses featuring lectures from professors from universities specializing in science and technology as well as national research universities. It offers 15 courses covering basics, majors, and electives related to science and technology developed by the STAR-MOOC committee. Students can take a variety of courses. At the opening ceremony, KAIST President Sung-Chul Shin, DGIST President Sang Hyuk Son, UST President Kil Choo Moon, POSTECH Vice President Wankyun Chung, UNIST Vice President Jae Sung Lee, GIST Vice President of Public Affairs Pil-hwan Park came to sign the MoU for provising educational services for the public. During the ceremony, there was also time to introduce a technical agreement with a non-profit organization founded by NAVER, the CONNECT Foundation, for its courses and platform. Universities participating in STAR-MOOC will put effort into capacity building in response to changes driven by the Fourth Industrial Revolution. President Shin said, “STAR-MOOC is a platform that provides science and technology courses from basics to electives and major courses. It will become a leading educational platform.” Students can register and choose courses from the website (http://starmooc.kr).
Lifespan of Fuel Cells Maximized Using Small Amount of Metals
(Professor Jung (far right) and his team) Fuel cells are key future energy technology that is emerging as eco-friendly and renewable energy sources. In particular, solid oxide fuel cells composed of ceramic materials gain increasing attention for their ability to directly convert various forms of fuel such as biomass, LNG, and LPG to electric energy. KAIST researchers described a new technique to improve chemical stability of electrode materials which can extend the lifespan by employing a very little amount of metals. The core factor that determines the performance of solid oxide fuel cells is the cathode at which the reduction reaction of oxygen occurs. Conventionally, oxides with perovskite structure (ABO3) are used in cathodes. However, despite the high performance of perovskite oxides at initial operation, the performance decreases with time, limiting their long-term use. In particular, the condition of high temperature oxidation state required for cathode operation leads to surface segregation phenomenon, in which second phases such as strontium oxide (SrOx) accumulate on the surface of oxides, resulting in decrease in electrode performance. The detailed mechanism of this phenomenon and a way to effectively inhibit it has not been suggested. Using computational chemistry and experimental data, Professor WooChul Jung’s team at the Department of Materials Science and Engineering observed that local compressive states around the Sr atoms in a perovskite electrode lattice weakened the Sr-O bond strength, which in turn promote strontium segregation. The team identified local changes in strain distribution in perovskite oxide as the main cause of segregation on strontium surface. Based on these findings, the team doped different sizes of metals in oxides to control the extent of lattice strain in cathode material and effectively inhibited strontium segregation. Professor Jung said, “This technology can be implemented by adding a small amount of metal atoms during material synthesis, without any additional process.” He continued, “I hope this technology will be useful in developing high-durable perovskite oxide electrode in the future.” The study co-led by Professor Jung and Professor Jeong Woo Han at Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Seoul was featured as the cover of Energy and Environmental Science in the first issue of 2018. (Figure1.Correlation between the extent of lattice strain in electrode, strontium segregation, and electrode reaction.) (Figure 2. Cathode surface of solid oxide fuel cell stabilized using the developed technology)
Seoul Climate-Energy Conference Seeks Global Sustainability
(President Shin and Former UN Secretary General at the Seoul Climate Change-Energy Conference) Global leaders from both the private and public sectors discussed creative ways to seek inclusive green growth and sustainable development at the Seoul Climate-Energy Conference on November 24 in Seoul. The annual conference was co-hosted by KAIST and the Coalition for Our Common Future under the theme “Creating New Momentum for the Paris Agreement and a Sustainable Future.” More than 100 global leaders participated in the forum including the Director General Frank Rijsbermanof the Global Green Growth Institute and Executive Director Howard Bamsey of the Green Climate Fund. Former UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-Moon, who played a significant role in the signing of the Paris Agreement, was the keynote speaker. This year’s conference focused on Korea’s low carbon-energy transition and the Fourth Industrial Revolution to be aligned with green growth. At the conference, speakers and participants reviewed the progress of the decisions made by the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) COP23 in Bonn, Germany. The conference discussed topics of global collaboration for new climate regimes, green energy infrastructure, the Asia super grid, financing green energy, smart green cities, and new mobility. President Sung-Chul Shin emphasized global action and greater resilience toward climate change in his opening remarks. He said, “Today’s climate change can be attributed directly to the past three industrial revolutions. As industrialization continues, we must not make future generations pay the cost of this Fourth Industrial Revolution.” He explained that it is increasingly complicated to address climate change and energy issues because even though the use of energy consumption will continue to increase, energy policies are interwoven with global politics. He stressed three keywords to better address this global problem: innovation, collaboration, and speed. First he emphasized innovation as a priority for future success as it is hard to retain confidence without innovation. He noted KAIST has made sustainability initiatives in the fields of EEWS (energy, environment, water, sustainability) and green mobility. He also noted the importance of collaboration as industries are moving beyond a single discipline. KAIST is making collaborations in R&D and sustainability sectors, such as Saudi Aramco’s CO2 management center in KAIST. Finally, he explained that the speed of new transformation will be beyond our imagination, and governments should work efficiently to address issues in a fast manner. Meanwhile, Secretary-General Ban called for global unity in addressing climate change. He strongly emphasized that countries should make agreements not of willingness but of action, and that politicians should realize that this global agenda should be given top priority above domestic politics. He addressed how the world is experiencing the most powerful and destructive effects of climate change which makes active participation in the Paris Agreement increasingly important. He expressed his concern that the richest and most powerful countries are backing off, emphasizing the role of these countries as both global leaders and top producers of CO2. He also shared his hopes that the OECD will continue to work to fill the absence of the United States, and stressed the importance of acquiring 10 billion USD by 2020 to fund mitigation and adaptation technologies for developing countries’ CO2 emissions. Click for President Shin's opening remarks
Strengthening Industry-Academia Cooperation with LG CNS
On November 20, KAIST signed an MoU with LG CNS for industry-academia partnership in education, research, and business in the fields of AI and Big Data. Rather than simply developing education programs or supporting industry-academia scholarships, both organizations agreed to carry out a joint research project on AI and Big Data that can be applied to practical business. KAIST will collaborate with LG CNS in the fields of smart factories, customer analysis, and supply chain management analysis. Not only will LG CNS offer internships to KAIST students, but it also will support professors and students who propose innovative startup ideas for AI and Big Data. Offering an industry-academia scholarship for graduate students is also being discussed. Together with LG CNS, KAIST will put its efforts into propose projects regarding AI and Big Data in the public sector. Furthermore, KAIST and LG CNS will jointly explore and carry out industry-academia projects that could be practically used in business. Both will carry out the project vigorously through strong cooperation; for instance, LG CNS employees can be assigned to KAIST, if necessary. Also, LG CNS’s AI and Big Data platform, called DAP (Data Analytics & AI Platform) will be used as a data analysis tool during the project and the joint outcomes will be installed in DAP. KAIST professors with expertise in AI deep learning have trained LG CNS employees since the Department of Industrial & Systems Engineering established ‘KAIST AI Academy’ in LG CNS last August. “With KAIST, the best research-centered university in Korea, we will continue to lead in developing the field of AI and Big Data and provide innovative services that create value by connecting them to customer business,” Yong Shub Kim, the CEO of LG CNS, highlighted.
KAIST-WEF Roundtable on Inclusive Growth and Job Creation
The World Economic Forum (WEF) will join KAIST in an effort to address sweeping global problems in the wake of the Fourth Industrial Revolution. The two will co-host a roundtable on ‘Shaping Korea’s Priorities for Inclusive Growth and Job Creation in the Fourth Industrial Revolution’ on October 13 at Lotte Hotel in Seoul. The roundtable will bring together leaders from government, industry, universities, and non-profit civic organizations to have an in-depth discussion on a thought-provoking agenda of inclusive growth and job creation which scientific and technological changes will bring about. The event will provide a platform to explore practical collaboration and innovative strategies for better job creation and innovation ecosystems. The two will also sign an MOU for collaboration between the Fourth Industrial Revolution Information Center (FIRIC) of KAIST and the WEF Center for the Fourth Industrial Revolution (C4IR). President Sung-Chul Shin of KAIST and the Head of the WEF Center for the Fourth Industrial Revolution, Murat Sonmez, will lead the panel discussion titled ‘Inclusive Growth and the Fourth Industrial Revolution’ which will be attended by leaders from government, industry, and non-profit civic organizations. At the breakout sessions, the topics will be “Future Jobs” and the “Creation of Innovation Ecosystems”. Additionally, a discussion on the “SME 4.0 Initiative”, which is a program pushed forward by KAIST in collaboration with local governments, will talk about job creation through innovation in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). The WEF will introduce their two-year activities and research on the Fourth Industrial Revolution, which have great potential and a high possibility of successfully undergoing the revolution, to Korea. Since WEF Executive Chairman Klaus Schwab brought up the topic of the Fourth Industrial Revolution, the WEF has been leading agenda topics and discussions on high-profile matters, including ‘technology-driven but human-centered inclusive growth’ in predicting the future of jobs. The WEF is a nonprofit organization committed to addressing the world’s weightiest problems. It is best known for its annual meetings in Davos, Switzerland, which attracts leaders from around the world. KAIST has been participating in this summit since 2009. President Shin will also attend the upcoming Davos summit next January. Distinguished Professor Sang Yup Lee who heads the KAIST Institute and the FIRIC is the co-chair of the Global Council on Biotechnology and a member of the Global Future Council on the Fourth Industrial Revolution at the WEF. Moreover, President Shin and Mr. Sonmez will explain the background of the roundtable and share the results of the sessions at a joint news conference.
Policy Debate Series for Industry 4.0
(Photo caption: President Shin takes the podium as the first speaker of a year-long monthly policy dabate series on Industry 4.0 on May 11.) KAIST will kick off a monthly policy debate series on Industry 4.0 every Thursday from May 11 at the Startup KAIST building. The year-long series, featuring professors from key technology fields associated with Industry 4.0, is designed to help policy makers from government, industry, and research institutes respond better to the ramifications that Industry 4.0 brings about in each sector. The series will help them establish the vision and strategy that will work for the new industrial environment to take the lead in the new industrial era. Twelve professors, including President Sung-Chul Shin, from departments that are researching emerging technologies will speak on the megatrend of new technology, while facilitating debates and Q& A sessions with participants. The participants will include officials from the government complexes in Sejong and Daejeon cities, government-funded research institutes in Daejeon, and businessmen, among others. For registration, please go to https://startup.kaist.ac.kr/register. Schedule Speaker Theme May 11 President Sung-Chul Shin Challenges and Innovations of KAIST in the Era of Industry 4.0 June 8 Professor Jonghwan Kim Machine Intelligence and Deep Learning July 6 Professor Jun Ho Oh Robot Technology and the Future Aug. 3 Professor Hyunchul Shim Unmanned Vehicle Technology and Industry 4.0 Sept. 7 Professor Hawoong Jeong Complex Systems and Data Science Oct. 12 Professor Yongdae Kim Technology, Policy, and the Fostering of Talents: Industry 4.0 and Information Protection Nov. 9 Professor Sang Yup Lee The Role of Biotechnology in Industry 4.0 Dec. 7 Professor Meeyoung Cha AI-Based Research for Fake News Detection 2018 Jan. 4 Professor Joungho Kim Innovation for the Korean Semiconductor Industry: Kim’s Law Feb. 8 Professor Jaekyun Moon Education for Industry 4.0 March 8 Professor Sang Kil Cha Artificial Intelligence Cyber Warfare: Its Present and Future April 5 Professor Jaeseung Jeong The Future of Brain Engineering and Artificial Intelligence
Highly-Efficient Photoelectrochemical CO2 Reduction
Direct CO2 conversion has continuously attracted a great deal of attention as a technology to produce fuels and chemical building blocks from renewable energy resources. Specifically, substances such as carbon feedstocks and fuels can be produced by utilizing sunlight, water, and CO2 as semiconductors and a water interface through photoelectrochemical CO2 reduction. A KAIST research team demonstrated a novel photoelectrode structure for highly-selective and efficient photoelectrochemical CO2 reduction reactions. The research team led by Professor Jihun Oh of the Graduate School of EEWS (Energy, Environment, Water and Sustainability) presented a Si photoelectrode with a nanoporous Au thin film that is capable of reducing CO2 to CO with 90 percent selectivity in aqueous solution. The research team’s technology will provide a basic framework for designing the semiconductor photoelectrode structure necessary for photoelectrochemical conversion. In order to achieve steady conversion of CO2, it is necessary to use a high-performance catalyst to lower overpotential. Among the metal catalysts, Au is known to be an electrocatalyst that converts CO2 to CO. Conventionally, bare Au, as a catalyst, produces a lot of hydrogen gas due to its low CO selectivity. In addition, the high cost of Au remains a challenge in using the catalyst. Professor Oh’s research team addressed the issue by creating a nanoporous Au thin film formed by the electrochemical reduction of an anodized Au thin film. As a result, the team could demonstrate an efficient, selective photoelectrochemical reduction reaction of CO2 to CO using electrochemically-treated Au thin films on a Si photoelectrode. The electrochemical reduction on anodized Au thin films forms a nanoporous thin layer exhibiting many grain boundaries of nanoparticles on the Au surface. This dramatically improves the selectivity of the reduction reaction with a maximum CO faradaic efficiency of over 90% at low overpotential and durability. The research team also used an Au thin film of about 200 nanometers, 50,000 times thinner than previously reported nanostructured Au catalysts, resulting in a cost-effective catalyst. When depositing the catalyst on the semiconductor surface in the type of nanoparticles, the substrate of the thin film will be affected in the course of electrochemical reduction. Thus, the research team designed a new Si photoelectrode with mesh-type co-catalysts that are independently wired at the front and back of the photoelectrode without influencing the photoelectrode, and made it possible for electrochemical reduction. Due to the superior CO2 reduction reaction activity of the nanoporous Au mesh and high photovoltage from Si, the Si photoelectrode with the nanoporous Au thin film mesh shows conversion of CO2 to CO with 91% Faradaic efficiency at positive potential than CO equilibrium potential. Professor Oh explained, “This technology will serve as a platform for diverse semiconductors and catalysts. Researchers can further improve the solar-to-CO2 conversion efficiency using this technology. Dr. Jun Tae Song, the first author continued, “This new approach made it possible to develop a simple but very important type of electrode structure. It is the first time to achieve CO2 conversion at the potential lower than equilibrium potential. We believe that our research will contribute to efficient CO2 conversion.” This research was published in the inside front cover of Advanced Energy Materials on February 8, 2017. The research was funded and supported by the Korea Carbon Capture & Sequestration R&D Center. Professor Sung-Yoon Chung of the EEWS also participated in this research. (Figure: Schematic diagram of a Si photoelectrode that patterns with mesh-type nanoporous Au)
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