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IdeasLab Presents Biotechnology Solutions for Aging Populations at 2016 Davos Forum
KAIST researchers will discuss how biological sciences and health technologies can address challenges and opportunities posed by aging populations in an era of increasing longevity. Many countries around the world today are experiencing the rapid growth of aging populations, with a decline in fertility rate and longer life expectancy. At this year's Annual Meeting of the World Economic Forum (a.k.a. Davos Forum) on January 20-23, 2016 in Davos-Klosters, Switzerland, four researchers in the field of biological sciences and biotechnology at the Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST) will discuss the implications of an aging population and explore possible solutions to provide better health care services to the elderly. KAIST will host an IdeasLab twice on the theme "Biotechnology Solutions for Ageing Populations" on January 21st and 23rd, respectively. Professor Byung-Kwan Cho of the Biological Sciences Department will give a presentation on "Rejuvenation via the Microbiome," explaining how microorganisms in the human gut play an important role in preventing aging, or even rejuvenating it. Distinguished Professor Sang Yup Lee of the Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Department will talk about "Traditional Medicine Reimagined through Modern Systems Biology." Professor Lee will introduce his research results published in Nature Biotechnology (March 6, 2015) and some more new results. He discovered the mechanisms of traditional oriental medicine's (TOM) efficacy by applying systems biology to study structural similarities between natural and nontoxic multi-compounds in the medicine and human metabolites. He will discuss TOM's multi-target approach, which is based on the synergistic combinations of multi-compounds to treat symptoms of a disease, can contribute to the development of new drugs, cosmetics, and nutrients. Professor Youn-Kyung Lim of the Industrial Design Department will speak about a mobile and the Internet of Things-based health care service called "Dr. M" in her presentation on "Advanced Mobile Healthcare Systems." Professor Daesoo Kim of the Biological Sciences Department will share his research on human's happiness and greed in the context of nueroscience and behavioral and biological sciences in a talk entitled "A Neural Switch for Being Happy with Less on a Crowded Planet." KAIST has hosted IdeasLabs several times at the Summer Davos Forum in China, but this is the first time it will participate in the Davos Forum in January. Professor Lee said, "Just like climate change, the issue of how to address aging populations has become a major global issue. We will share some exciting research results and hope to have in depth discussion on this issue with the leaders attending the Davos Forum. KAIST will engage actively in finding solutions that benefit not only Korea but also the international community."
Professor Mikyoung Lim Receives the MediaV Young Researcher Award
Professor Mikyoung Lim of the Department of Mathematical Sciences at KAIST received the MediaV Young Researchers Award at the International Conference on Inverse Problems and Related Topics that took place at the National Taiwan University, Taiwan, on December 15-19, 2014. The Conference established the MediaV Young Researcher Award in 2010 to recognize distinguished scholars who are age 40 or younger and have made important contributions to the field of inverse problems. This year, two recipients were chosen for the award. Professor Lim has focused her research on the incremental reading of incomprehensible materials’ imaging and the effect of invisibility cloaking. The other awardee was Kui Ren, a professor at the University of Texas at Austin.
Tae-Wan Kim, a doctoral candidate, receives the best paper award from ECTC
The 2014 Electronic Components and Technology Conference (ECTC) will take place on May 27-30 in Florida, USA. Tae-Wan Kim, a Ph.D. candidate at the Department of Materials Science Engineering (MSE), KAIST, will receive the Intel Best Student Paper Award at the conference.ECTC is the premier international conference that brings together the best researchers and engineers in packaging, components and microelectronic systems science, technology and education in an environment of cooperation and technical exchange. The conference is sponsored by the Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology (CPMT) Society of IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineering).The paper describes research on novel nanofiber anisotropic conductive films for ultra fine pitch electronic package application, which was written under the guidance of Professor Kyung-Wook Paik of the MSE Department. In the past ten years, two of his students have received the best paper award from ECTC.
2013 Graduation Exhibition "Design Hundred" Held by Industrial Design Department
The Department of Industrial Design at KAIST is hosting a graduation exhibition for the Class of 2013 under the theme “Design for an Aging Society” from November 20 to December 6 in Seoul and Daejeon. The exhibition was created to acknowledge aging societies as a social issue and to suggest solutions through design. Two separate exhibitions will be held, one at Gong-Pyeong Gallery in Seoul from November 20 - 25 and the other in the lobby of the Department of Industrial Design at KAIST from November 28 to December 6.
The new era of personalized cancer diagnosis and treatment
Professor Tae-Young Yoon - Succeeded in observing carcinogenic protein at the molecular level - “Paved the way to customized cancer treatment through accurate analysis of carcinogenic protein” The joint KAIST research team of Professor Tae Young Yoon of the Department of Physics and Professor Won Do Huh of the Department of Biological Sciences have developed the technology to monitor characteristics of carcinogenic protein in cancer tissue – for the first time in the world. The technology makes it possible to analyse the mechanism of cancer development through a small amount of carcinogenic protein from a cancer patient. Therefore, a personalised approach to diagnosis and treatment using the knowledge of the specific mechanism of cancer development in the patient may be possible in the future. Until recently, modern medicine could only speculate on the cause of cancer through statistics. Although developed countries, such as the United States, are known to use a large sequencing technology that analyses the patient’s DNA, identification of the interactions between proteins responsible for causing cancer remained an unanswered question for a long time in medicine. Firstly, Professor Yoon’s research team has developed a fluorescent microscope that can observe even a single molecule. Then, the “Immunoprecipitation method”, a technology to extract a specific protein exploiting the high affinity between antigens and antibodies was developed. Using this technology and the microscope, “Real-Time Single Molecule co-Immunoprecipitation Method” was created. In this way, the team succeeded in observing the interactions between carcinogenic and other proteins at a molecular level, in real time. To validate the developed technology, the team investigated Ras, a carcinogenic protein; its mutation statistically is known to cause around 30% of cancers. The experimental results confirmed that 30-50% of Ras protein was expressed in mouse tumour and human cancer cells. In normal cells, less than 5% of Ras protein was expressed. Thus, the experiment showed that unusual increase in activation of Ras protein induces cancer. The increase in the ratio of active Ras protein can be inferred from existing research data but the measurement of specific numerical data has never been done before. The team suggested a new molecular level diagnosis technique of identifying the progress of cancer in patients through measuring the percentage of activated carcinogenic protein in cancer tissue. Professor Yoon Tae-young said, “This newly developed technology does not require a separate procedure of protein expression or refining, hence the existing proteins in real biological tissues or cancer cells can be observed directly.” He also said, “Since carcinogenic protein can be analyzed accurately, it has opened up the path to customized cancer treatment in the future.” “Since the observation is possible on a molecular level, the technology confers the advantage that researchers can carry out various examinations on a small sample of the cancer patient.” He added, “The clinical trial will start in December 2012 and in a few years customized cancer diagnosis and treatment will be possible.” Meanwhile, the research has been published in Nature Communications (February 19). Many researchers from various fields have participated, regardless of the differences in their speciality, and successfully produced interdisciplinary research. Professor Tae Young Yoon of the Department of Physics and Professors Dae Sik Lim and Won Do Huh of Biological Sciences at KAIST, and Professor Chang Bong Hyun of Computational Science of KIAS contributed to developing the technique. Figure 1: Schematic diagram of observed interactions at the molecular level in real time using fluorescent microscope. The carcinogenic protein from a mouse tumour is fixed on the microchip, and its molecular characteristics are observed live. Figure 2: Molecular interaction data using a molecular level fluorescent microscope. A signal in the form of spike is shown when two proteins combine. This is monitored live using an Electron Multiplying Charge Coupled Device (EMCCD). It shows signal results in bright dots. An organism has an immune system as a defence mechanism to foreign intruders. The immune system is activated when unwanted pathogens or foreign protein are in the body. Antibodies form in recognition of the specific antigen to protect itself. Organisms evolved to form antibodies with high specificity to a certain antigen. Antibodies only react to its complementary antigens. The field of molecular biology uses the affinity between antigens and antibodies to extract specific proteins; a technology called immunoprecipitation. Even in a mixture of many proteins, the protein sought can be extracted using antibodies. Thus immunoprecipitation is widely used to detect pathogens or to extract specific proteins. Technology co-IP is a well-known example that uses immunoprecipitation. The research on interactions between proteins uses co-IP in general. The basis of fixing the antigen on the antibody to extract antigen protein is the same as immunoprecipitation. Then, researchers inject and observe its reaction with the partner protein to observe the interactions and precipitate the antibodies. If the reaction occurs, the partner protein will be found with the antibodies in the precipitations. If not, then the partner protein will not be found. This shows that the two proteins interact. However, the traditional co-IP can be used to infer the interactions between the two proteins although the information of the dynamics on how the reaction occurs is lost. To overcome these shortcomings, the Real-Time Single Molecule co-IP Method enables observation on individual protein level in real time. Therefore, the significance of the new technique is in making observation of interactions more direct and quantitative. Additional Figure 1: Comparison between Conventional co-IP and Real-Time Single Molecule co-IP
Inexpensive Separation Method of Graphene Developed
The problem with commercializing graphene that is synthesized onto metals over a wide area is that it can not be separated from the metal. However, a groundbreaking separation technology which is both cheap and environment friendly has been developed. Prof. Taek soo Kim and Prof. Byung Jin Cho"s research teams have conducted this research under the support of the Global Frontier program and Researcher Support Program initiated by The Ministry of Education and Science and Korea Research Foundation. The research results have been posted on the online news flash of Nano Letters on februrary 29th. (Thesis title: Direct Measurement of Adhesion Energy of Monolayer Graphene As-Grown on Copper and Its Application to Renewable Transfer Process) The research has generated exact results on the interfacial adhesive energy of graphene and its surface material for the first time. Through this, the catalyst metal are no longer to be used just once, but will be used for an infinite number of times, thereby being ecofriendly and efficient. Wide area graphine synthesized onto the catalyst meatal are used in various ways such as for display and for solar cells. There has been much research going on in this field. However, in order to use this wide area graphene, the graphene must be removed from the catalyst metal without damage. Until now, the metal had been melted away through the use of chemical substances in order to separate the graphene. However, this method has been very problematic. The metal can not be reused, the costs are very high, much harmful wastes were created in the process of melting the metals, and the process was very complicated. The research teams of Professors Taek Su Kim and Byung Jin Cho measured the interfacial adhesive energy of the synthesized graphene and learned that it could be easily removed. Also, the mechanically removed graphene was successfully used in creating molecular electronic devices directly. This has thus innovatively shortened the graphene manufacturing process. Also, it has been confirmed that the metalic board can be reused multiple times after the graphene is removed. A new, ecofriendly and cost friendly method of graphene manufacturing has been paved. Through this discovery, it is expected that graphene will become easier to manufacture and that the period til the commercialization date of graphene will therefore be greatly reduced Prof. Cho stated " This reserach has much academical meaning significance in that it has successfully defined the surfacial adhesive energy between the graphene and its catalyst material and it should receive much attention in that it solved the largest technical problem involved in the production of graphene.
Professor Min Beom Ki develops metamaterial with high index of refraction
Korean research team was able to theoretically prove that a metamaterial with high index of refraction does exist and produced it experimentally. Professor Min Beom Ki, Dr. Choi Moo Han, and Doctorate candidate Lee Seung Hoon was joined by Dr. Kang Kwang Yong’s team from ETRI, KAIST’s Professor Less Yong Hee’s team, and Seoul National University’s Professor Park Nam Kyu’s team. The research was funded by the Basic Research Support Program initiated by the Ministry of Education, Science, and Technology and Korea Research Federation. The result of the research was published in ‘Nature’ magazine and is one of the few researches carried out by teams composed entirely of Koreans. Metamaterials are materials that have physical properties beyond those materials’ properties that are found in nature. It is formed not with atoms, but with synthetic atoms which have smaller structures than wavelengths. The optical and electromagnetic waves’ properties of metamaterials can be altered significantly which has caught the attention of scientists worldwide. Professor Min Beom Ki’s team independently designed and created a dielectric metamaterial with high polarization and low diamagnetism with an index of refraction of 38.6, highest synthesized index value. It is expected that the result of the experiment will help develop high resolution imaging system and ultra small, hyper sensitive optical devices.
A graduate-level education for working professionals in science programs and exhibitions will be available from mid-August this year.
The Graduate School of Culture Technology (GSCT), KAIST, has created a new course for professionals who purse their career in science programs and exhibitions, which will start on August 19 and continue through the end of November 2010. The course will be held at Digital Media City in Seoul. The course, also co-sponsored by National Science Museum, will offer students tuition-free opportunities to brush up their knowledge on the administration, policy, culture, technology, planning, contents development, and technology & design development, of science programs and exhibitions. Such subjects as science contents, interaction exhibitions, and utilization of new media will be studied and discussed during the course. Students will also have a class that is interactive, engaging, and visual, as well as provides hands-on learning activities. A total of 30 candidates will be chosen for the course. Eligible applicants are graduates with a B.S. degree in the relevant filed, science program designers and exhibitors, curators for science and engineering museums, and policy planners for public and private science development programs.
Prof. Yu Wins Sidney Stein International Award
Prof. Jin Yu of the Department of Materials Science and Engineering won the Sidney J. Stein International Award at the plenary session of the International Microelectronics and Packaging Society (IMAPS) held in San Jose, the United States, on Nov. 3. The Sidney Stein International Award recognizes an individual who is regarded as providing significant international technical and/or leadership contributions to the microelectronics packaging industry, while participating and demonstrating support of IMAPS international activities to enhance the electronics packaging profession. The International Microelectronics And Packaging Society is the largest society dedicated to the advancement and growth of microelectronics and electronics packaging. It offers chapters around the globe, creating global networks of more than 4,000 members in the United States and an additional 4,000 members throughout Europe and Asia. Prof. Yu currently serves as the chairman of its Asia League Chapter and the Korean Microelectronics and Packaging Society.
KAIST to hold International Workshop on Flexible Displays
The 2009 KAIST International Workshop on Flexible Displays will take place at the Electrical Engineering Building on June 25, university sources said on Tuesday (June 23). The workshop organized by the Center for Advanced Flexible Display Convergence (CAFDC) will explore the status and future vision of flexible and transparent plasma displays, which are among the key technologies for the development of the next-generation displays. There will be also discussions about technologies to realize the large-scale flexible and transparent display which is regarded as the display of the future. Among the speakers are some of the most prominent figures in the field. Gary Eden from University of Illinois, Prof. Kunihide Tachibana from Kyoto University, and Carol Wedding, the president of Imaging Systems Tech., USA and several other well-known professors and engineers will participate in the workshop. Professor Kyung-Cheol Choi, CAFDC chair, said: "The workshop will provide an excellent opportunity to examine the flexible and transparent plasma display technologies. It will also be a good chance to explore large-scale flexible and transparent displays from various technical viewpoints."
KAIST Graduate Selected As Winner of IEEE Outstanding Young Engineer Award
- First Korean winner of IEEE Outstanding Young Engineer Award Dr. Myung-Jin Rhim, Bachelor, Master, and Ph.D of KAIST, has been selected to receive 2007 Outstanding Young Engineer Award by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Components, Packaging, and Manufacturing Technology (CPMT) Society. Dr. Rhim will be the first Korean winner of the award. Dr. Rhim received his Ph.D of Materials Science & Engineering at KAIST in 2001 and has made outstanding research outputs, such as 28 papers at international journals covered by Science Citation Index (SCI) and 12 international patents. He has been also listed in Marquis Who’s Who in the World, Who’s Who of Emerging Leaders, Who’s Who in Asia, and Outstanding Intellectual of the 21st Century, 21st Century Award for Achievement published by the International Biographical Centre of Cambridge, England. IEEE CPMT Society has yearly awarded the Outstanding Young Engineer Award to a scientist or engineer of electronic components, packaging, and manufacturing technology prior to his or her 35th birthday in recognition of his or her research achievements. Dr. Rhim is now in his postdoctoral program at Georgia Institute of Technology in USA.
KAIST and Samsung Electrics Signs Cooperation Agreement
- Industry-Academy cooperation program for enhancing global competitiveness and for obtaining new growth momentum - Two research institutes - Power Electronics Institute and Packaging Institute - open in KAIST- Fostering customized experts through researcher reeducation, field experiences, etc. KAIST (President Nam-Pyo Suh) and Samsung Electronics (President Ho-Moon Kang) will be promoting industry-academy cooperative activities to enhance their global competitiveness and to obtain new growth momentum. The both parties singed the agreement at KAIST conference room 1 on April 10, Tuesday, and two new research institutes - Power Electronics Institute (PEI) and Packaging Institute (PI) -opened this day. As a result, KAIST holds three research institutes managed in cooperation with Samsung Electronics, including the Radio Technology Institute (RTI) which was opened in 2005. The PEI aims to develop power supply devices for high-efficiency and high-power servers of flat display power supply, and will foster customized experts through researcher reeducation and field experiences. The PI will foster experts for improving packaging qualities and for developing next-generation technologies. Packing technologies are in the core field of electronics part industries which is going for integrating, systemizing and modulization. “I’m sure outstanding industry-academy researches and student education will raise the standings of the both bodies, and I promise generous support to produce further significant research results,” said KAIST President Suh. “This cooperation program will become an example of successful industry-academy cooperation. I’m expecting KAIST will become a trustworthy partner for Samsung Electronics to jump into one of the world’s top-class enterprises,” said Samsung Electronics President Kang.
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