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KAIST Professor Finds Paradox in Human Behaviors on Road
-Strange as it might seem, closing roads can cut delays A new route opened to ease traffic jam, but commuting time has not been reduced.Conversely, motorists reached their destinations in shorter times after a big street was closed. These paradoxical phenomena are the result of human selfishness, according to recent findings of a research team led by a KAIST physics professor. Prof. Ha-Woong Jeong, 40, at the Department of Physics, conducted a joint research with a team from Santa Fe Institute of the U.S. to analyze the behaviors of drivers in Boston, New York and London. Their study found that when individual drivers, fed with traffic information via various kinds of media, try to choose the quickest route, it can cause delays for others and even worsen congestion. Prof. Jeong and his group"s study will be published in the Sept. 18 edition of the authoritative Physical Review Letters. The London-based Economist magazine introduced Prof. Jeong"s finding in its latest edition. Prof. Jeong, a pioneer in the study of "complex system," has published more than 70 research papers in the world"s leading science journals, including Nature, PNAS and Physical Review Letters. "Initially, my study was to reduce annoyance from traffic jam during rush hours," Prof. Jeong said. "Ultimately, it is purposed to eliminate inefficiency located in various corners of social activities, with the help of the network science." The Economist article read (in part): "...when individual drivers each try to choose the quickest route it can cause delays for others and even increase hold-ups in the entire road network. "The physicists give a simplified example of how this can happen: trying to reach a destination either by using a short but narrow bridge or a longer but wide motorway. In their hypothetical case, the combined travel time of all the drivers is minimized if half use the bridge and half the motorway. But that is not what happens. Some drivers will switch to the bridge to shorten their commute, but as the traffic builds up there the motorway starts to look like a better bet, so some switch back. Eventually the traffic flow on the two routes settles into what game theory calls a Nash equilibrium, named after John Nash, the mathematician who described it. This is the point where no individual driver could arrive any faster by switching routes. "The researchers looked at how this equilibrium could arise if travelling across Boston from Harvard Square to Boston Common. They analysed 246 different links in the road network that could be used for the journey and calculated traffic flows at different volumes to produce what they call a “price of anarchy” (POA). This is the ratio of the total cost of the Nash equilibrium to the total cost of an optimal traffic flow directed by an omniscient traffic controller. In Boston they found that at high traffic levels drivers face a POA which results in journey times 30% longer than if motorists were co-ordinated into an optimal traffic flow. Much the same thing was found in London (a POA of up to 24% for journeys between Borough and Farringdon Underground stations) and New York (a POA of up to 28% from Washington Market Park to Queens Midtown Tunnel). "Modifying the road network could reduce delays. And contrary to popular belief, a simple way to do that might be to close certain roads. This is known as Braess’s paradox, after another mathematician, Dietrich Braess, who found that adding extra capacity to a network can sometimes reduce its overall efficiency. "In Boston the group looked to see if the paradox could be created by closing any of the 246 links. In 240 cases their analysis showed that a closure increased traffic problems. But closing any one of the remaining six streets reduced the POA of the new Nash equilibrium. Much the same thing was found in London and New York. More work needs to be done to understand these effects, say the researchers. But even so, planners should note that there is now evidence that even a well intentioned new road may make traffic jams worse."
Prof. Kim Receives Lee Osheroff Prize
Professor Eun-Seong Kim of the Department of Physics has been selected as the winner of the Lee Osheroff Richardson Prize for 2008. The award was established in honor of the 1996 Nobel Prize laureates in Physics David Lee, Douglas Osheroff, and Robert Richardson for their discovery in superfluidity in helium-3. The annual prize sponsored by Oxford Instruments NanoScience is awarded to a young scientist who has made a notable achievement in the field of low temperatures and high magnetic fields. Kim was chosen as the winner of this prestigious award for his contributions to the understanding of solid helium. Through research, Professor Kim found superfluid-like behavior in solid helium and with this discovery it is shown that all three states of matter can exhibit superfluid behavior. The Lee Osheroff Richardson Prize recipient is selected by the North American Prize Committee which is composed of prominent figures in the low temperature and high magnetic fields including Professor Bruce Gaulin of McMaster University, who chairs the Prize Committee. The award ceremony was held on March 11 in New Orleans.
Three Professors Selected as IEEE Fellows
Three Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST)’s professors, Ju-Jang Lee, Yong-Hee Lee, and Hoi-Jun Yoo, were selected as a part of the 2008 Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc (IEEE)’s “Fellows.” A Fellow is the highest level of membership given only to those “with an extraordinary record of accomplishments” in their field of study. Although some IEEE memberships can be gained freely by all, the Fellow status is bestowed only by the IEEE Board of Directors. Professor Ju-Jang Lee was awarded the Fellow status “for contributions to intelligent robust control and robotics.” Robust control is a system’s stable maintenance under many inputs in a dynamic environment. A part of KAIST’s Electrical Engineering Department, Professor Ju-Jang Lee has conducted successful research in these fields, and has published 538 papers. He also holds many patents in and outside of the country, and is the General Chair for two upcoming IEEE conferences in 2008 and 2009. Professor Yong-Hee Lee of KAIST’s Physics Department was recognized for his “contributions to photonic devices based upon vertical cavity surface emitting lasers and photonic crystals.” Photonic devices are those that allow the practical use of photons, and photon crystals are structures that affect the motion of photons. Professor Yong-Hee Lee is an expert in the field of Photonics and his works have been cited over 2500 times. He is also an outstanding speaker, giving over 30 lectures in front of international audiences in the past 5 years, and receiving The Distinguished Lecturer’s Award from IEEE. Professor Hoi-Jun Yoo was granted the prestigious Fellow status for his “contributions to low-power and high-speed VLSI design.” VLSI stands for ‘very large scale integration’ and refers to the skill for packing a huge number of semiconductors on an integrated circuit. Professor Lee’s Fellow status is noteworthy in that he studied, worked, and researched solely in Korea. He is also the youngest of the three KAIST professors to be granted membership in the class of 2008 Fellowship. IEEE also recognized Professor Yoo as the most frequent publisher during the past 8 years. IEEE, originally concentrating on Electric Engineering, has now branched into many related fields. It is a nonprofit organization, and its aim is to be the world"s leading professional association for the advancement of technology. For its Fellow Class of 2008, 295 members were chosen; which is less that 0.1% of their total members.By KAIST Herald on December, 2007
KAIST Names Three Distinguished Professors
KAIST Names Three Distinguished Professors - Three professors having achieved world’s distinguished research and education performances- Special incentives and non full-time position after retirement age to be offered KAIST (President Nam-Pyo Suh) has named three Distinguished Professors, the most honorable positions in KAIST, for the first time in its history. The three professors are Choong-Ki Kim, Dep. of Computer Science, Sang-Yup Lee, Dep. of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, and Kee-Joo Chang, Dep. of Physics. Professor Kim has made significant contributions to the advancement of Korea’s semiconductor field. He developed and put into a practical use ‘CCD Imaging Element’, a core technology in the multimedia era and the most widely used imaging sensor, for the first time in the world. He also promoted special education programs with industrial bodies such as Samsung Electronics, Hynix Semiconductor, etc. to improve industry-academy cooperation programs of KAIST. In recent years, he is showing passionate activities for the development of KAIST, such as genius education, interdisciplinary education by the Graduate School of Culture Technology, and experiment education for undergraduate students. He received Hoam Prize in 1993 and the Order of Civil Merit Moran Medal in 1997, and is an IEEE fellow and the former Vice-president of KAIST. Professor Lee has showed outstanding performances in the field of Metabolic Engineering. He discovered the genome sequences of bacteria for the first time in the world and published a paper regarding his discovery applied to metabolic engineering technologies at Nature Biotechnology in 2004. He also published a 78-page paper, evaluated as the bible of prteomics, at the 70 years long Microbiology and Molecular Biology Review (MMBR). His research performances are 187 domestic and international papers, 203 patent applications, Young Scientist Award, 212 invited lectures from home and abroad, etc. Professor Chang has published about 200 papers in the field of Sold-State Physics and presented diverse theory models regarding semiconductor materials, his major research fields, at review articles, textbooks, academic conferences, etc. Particularly, he found out the essences of DX defects in GaAs semiconductors, a problem that had remained unsolved more than 10 years, and his paper on this has been cited so far more than 500 times. Professor Chang, named as one of the Nation’s Great Scholars in 2005, has 15 papers as cited more than 100 times and records the number of citation indexed by SCI at 4,847, third place among all scientists in Korea. Distinguished Professors are the most honorable positions in KAIST, and only professors achieving world’s distinguished research and education performances can be Distinguished Professors. Being Distinguished Professors demands recommendations from President, Vice-president, Deans of College, and Department Heads and favorable evaluations by domestic and overseas professionals. Distinguished Professors will be offered special incentives and appointed as non full-time faculty even after their full retirement age. KAIST will hire outstanding human resources in highly promising research fields through its novice systems including Distinguished Professors System, etc. to build and retain world’s best faculty.
Professor Chung-Seok Chang named as APS Fellow
Professor Chung-Seok Chang named as APS Fellow - Honorable position offered only to an extremely small number of members within 0.5% of APS - Recognized for his leading and creative contribution to Plasma conveyance theory, Electromagnetic waves heating theory and leadership in the research field of large-scaled computer simulation Professor Chung-Seok Chang (Department of Physics) was named as a fellow of the American Physics Society (APS), world-renowned society in the physics filed. The fellow of the APS is considered as a position of great honor among scholars in the field of Physics since only a small number of regular members within 0.5% of the APS can become the fellows. Professor Chang was recognized for his leading and creative contribution to the fields of Plasma conveyance theory, Electromagnetic waves heating theory and leadership in the research field of large-scaled computer simulation, which made him named as APS fellow. Professor Chang has been invited several times to the Main Policy Committee of the U.S. Department of Energy and was a member of On-site Review Committee on the theoretical research activities of the U.S. major state-run institutes. Due to many world-recognized research results carried out with KAIST students, he has been invited several times for lecture to the conference of the APS as well as large-scaled international academic conferences. As a result, KAIST doctorates of Computational Physics from his laboratory are recognized globally for their excellence in the field of nuclear fusion. Besides, Professor Chang was assigned as the Chief General of the super-sized Computational Theory Research Group last year, to which the U.S Department of Energy will invest 6 million dollars of research fund for three years, and manages the complex theory research group that transcribes and reproduces the properties of nuclear fusion plasma by using large-scaled parallel computers with its head quarter in the U.S. Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences. This research group consists of greatest U.S. scholars in the fields of Physics, Mathematics, and Computation, belonging to 14 research-education institutes such as Princeton University, Colombia University, MIT, University of California Engineering College, California State University, Rutgers University, New-York University, Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, Oak Ridge National Lab, Berkeley National Laboratories, etc., thereby gathering worldwide
Nobel Laureate Heads KAIST
Nobel Laureate Heads KAIST By Kim Tae-gyu / Staff Reporter THE KOREA TIMES 05-29-2004 A Nobel laureate will lead the Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), winning a stiff race with a pair of strong Korean candidates. The KAIST on Friday said the state-financed institute appointed Robert Laughlin as its 12th president instead of two local hopefuls, professors Shin Seong-cheol and Park Seong-ju. This is the first time that foreigners take charge of the KAIST since it was established in 1971 and Laughlin also is noted in the history as the first Nobel Prize winner to head Korea"s educational institute. After receiving approval of Science-Technology Minister Oh Myung, Laughlin will be inaugurated as early as next month, according to a KAIST official. Laughlin, a Stanford professor, made his name after being co-awarded the 1998 Nobel Prize in Physics with Horst Stoermer and Daniel Tsui for the discovery of a new form of quantum fluid. The findings, which explained the fractional quantum hall effect for the first time, have been recognized as a significant breakthrough in understanding quantum physics. The American physicist had also sustained a special connection with Korea even before he garnered the prestigious prize and has visited Korea several times. Early last month, Laughlin was named to head the Asia Pacific Center for Theoretical Physics (APCTP) in recognition of his notable interest in Korea. The APCTP is an international research institute headquartered inside Pohang University of Science and Technology in North Kyongsang Province. firstname.lastname@example.org
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