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Development of a Photonic Diode with Light Speed, Single-Direction Transfer
A photonic diode using a nitride semiconductor rod can increase the possibility of developing all-optical integrated circuits, an alternative to conventional integrated circuits. Professor Yong-Hoon Cho's research team from the Department of Physics, KAIST, developed a photonic diode which can selectively transfer light in one way, using semiconductor rods. The photonic diode has a diameter of hundreds of nanometers (nm) and a length of few micrometers. This size enables its use in large-scale integration (LSI). The diode’s less sensitivity towards polarized light angle makes it more useful. In an integrated circuit, a diode controls the flow of electrons. If this diode controls light rather than electrons, data can be transferred at high speed, and its loss is minimized to a greater extent. Since these implementations conserve more energy, this is a very promising future technology. However, conventional electronic diodes, made up of asymmetric meta-materials or photonic crystalline structures, are large, which makes them difficult to be used in LSI. These diodes could only be implemented under limited conditions due to its sensitivity towards polarized light angle. The research team used nitride semiconductor rods to develop a highly efficient photonic diode with distinct light intensities from opposite ends. The semiconductor rod yields different amount of energy horizontally. According to the research team, this is because the width of the quantum well and its indium quantity is continuously controlled. Professor Cho said, "A large energy difference in a horizontal direction causes asymmetrical light propagation, enabling it to be operated as a photonic diode." He added that “If light, instead of electrons, were adopted in integrated circuits, the transfer speed would be expected as great as that of light.” The research findings were published in the September 10th issue of Nano Letters as the cover paper. Under the guidance of Professor Cho, two Ph.D. candidates, Suk-Min Ko and Su-Hyun Gong, conducted this research. This research project was sponsored by the National Research Foundation of Korea and KAIST’s EEWS (energy, environment, water, and sustainability) Research Center. Figure Description: Computer simulated image of photonic diode made of semiconductor rod implemented in an all-optical integrated circuit
Distinguished Professor Sang Yup Lee Participates in the 2014 Summer Davos Forum
Distinguished Professor Sang Yup Lee from the Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, KAIST, was invited to lead four sessions at the Annual Meeting 2014, the World Economic Forum, also known as the Summer Davos Forum, which was held in Tianjin, China, from September 10th to 12th. Two of the four sessions Professor Lee participated in were held on September 10th. At the first session entitled “Biotechnology Ecosystem,” he examined with other panelists the future of bioengineering in depth and discussed major policies and industry trends that will be necessary for the development of future biotechnologies. Professor Lee later attended the “Strategic Shifts in Healthcare” session as a moderator. Issues related to transforming the health industry such as the next-generation genomics, mobile health and telemedicine, and wearable devices and predictive analytics were addressed. On September 12, Professor Lee joined the “IdeasLab with KAIST” and gave a presentation on nanotechnology. There was a total of ten IdeasLab sessions held at the Summer Davos Forum, and KAIST was the only Korean university ever invited to host this session. In addition to Professor Lee’s presentation, three more presentations were made by KAIST professors on such topics as “Sustainable Energy and Materials” and “Next-generation Semiconductors.” Lastly, Professor Lee participated in the “Global Promising Technology” session with the World Economic Forum’s Global Agenda Council members. At this session, he explained the selection of the “World’s Top 10 Most Promising Technologies” and “Bio Sector’s Top 10 Technologies” and led discussions about the “2015 Top 10 Technologies” with the council members. The Davos Forum has been announcing the “World’s Top 10 Most Promising Technologies” since 2012, and Professor Lee has played a key role in the selection while working as the Chairman of Global Agenda Council. The selection results are presented at the Davos Forum every year and have attracted a lot of attention from around the world.
Professor Ilkwon Oh Receives the Energy Technology Innovation Award
Professor Ilkwon Oh from the Division of Ocean Systems Engineering at the School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, KAIST, received the Energy Technology Innovation Award at the Energy Tech Insight 2014 Conference, which was held on August 28, 2014 at COEX in Seoul. The conference was co-hosted by the Ministry of Trade, Industry & Energy, Republic of Korea, and the Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning. Professor Oh has been recognized for his distinguished research on a synthetic technology to develop 3-dimensional carbon nanostructures based on defect engineering and for his efforts to apply this technology to produce cathode materials for high performance, high density lithium-ion secondary batteries. In 2010, the Ministry of Education, the Republic of Korea, and the National Research Foundation of Korea included Professor Oh's research in the 100 Best Research in Basic Sciences of the Year, and the 50 Best Research in Basic Sciences in 2012 and 2014, respectively.
First Instance of Negative Effects from Terahertz-Range Electromagnetic Waves
Professor Philhan Kim Electromagnetic waves (EM-wave) in the terahertz range were widely regarded as the “dream wavelength” due to its perceived neutrality. Its application was also wider than X-rays. However, KAIST scientists have discovered negative effects from terahertz EM-waves. Professor Philhan Kim of KAIST’s Graduate School of Nanoscience and Technology and Dr. Young-wook Jeong of the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) observed inflammation of animal skin tissue when exposed to terahertz EM-waves. The results were published in the online edition of Optics Express (May 19, 20104). Terahertz waves range from 0.1 to 10 terahertz and have a longer wavelength than visible or infrared light. Commonly used to see through objects like the X-ray, it was believed that the low energy of terahertz waves did not inflict any harm on the human body. Despite being applied for security checks, next-generation wireless communications, and medical imaging technology, little research has been conducted in proving its safety and impact. Conventional research failed to predict the exact impact of terahertz waves on organic tissues as only artificially cultured cells were used. The research team at KAERI developed a high power terahertz EM-wave generator that can be used on live organisms. A high power generator was necessary in applications such as biosensors and required up to 10 times greater power than currently used telecommunications EM-wave. Simultaneously, a KAIST research team developed a high speed, high resolution video-laser microscope that can distinguish cells within the organism. The experiment exposed 30 minutes of terahertz EM-wave on genetically modified mice and found six times the normal number of inflammation cells in the skin tissue after six hours. It was the first instance where negative side effects of terahertz EM-wave were observed. Professor Kim commented that “the research has set a standard for how we can use the terahertz EM-wave safely” and that “we will use this research to analyze and understand the effects of other EM-waves on organisms.”
Thermoelectric generator on glass fabric for wearable electronic devices
Wearable computers or devices have been hailed as the next generation of mobile electronic gadgets, from smart watches to smart glasses to smart pacemakers. For electronics to be worn by a user, they must be light, flexible, and equipped with a power source, which could be a portable, long-lasting battery or no battery at all but a generator. How to supply power in a stable and reliable manner is one of the most critical issues to commercialize wearable devices. A team of KAIST researchers headed by Byung Jin Cho, a professor of electrical engineering, proposed a solution to this problem by developing a glass fabric-based thermoelectric (TE) generator that is extremely light and flexible and produces electricity from the heat of the human body. In fact, it is so flexible that the allowable bending radius of the generator is as low as 20 mm. There are no changes in performance even if the generator bends upward and downward for up to 120 cycles. To date, two types of TE generators have been developed based either on organic or inorganic materials. The organic-based TE generators use polymers that are highly flexible and compatible with human skin, ideal for wearable electronics. The polymers, however, have a low power output. Inorganic-based TE generators produce a high electrical energy, but they are heavy, rigid, and bulky. Professor Cho came up with a new concept and design technique to build a flexible TE generator that minimizes thermal energy loss but maximizes power output. His team synthesized liquid-like pastes of n-type (Bi2Te3) and p-type (Sb2Te3) TE materials and printed them onto a glass fabric by applying a screen printing technique. The pastes permeated through the meshes of the fabric and formed films of TE materials in a range of thickness of several hundreds of microns. As a result, hundreds of TE material dots (in combination of n and p types) were printed and well arranged on a specific area of the glass fabric. Professor Cho explained that his TE generator has a self-sustaining structure, eliminating thick external substrates (usually made of ceramic or alumina) that hold inorganic TE materials. These substrates have taken away a great portion of thermal energy, a serious setback which causes low output power. He also commented, "For our case, the glass fabric itself serves as the upper and lower substrates of a TE generator, keeping the inorganic TE materials in between. This is quite a revolutionary approach to design a generator. In so doing, we were able to significantly reduce the weight of our generator (~0.13g/cm2), which is an essential element for wearable electronics." When using KAIST's TE generator (with a size of 10 cm x 10 cm) for a wearable wristband device, it will produce around 40 mW electric power based on the temperature difference of 31 °F between human skin and the surrounding air. Professor Cho further described about the merits of the new generator: "Our technology presents an easy and simple way of fabricating an extremely flexible, light, and high-performance TE generator. We expect that this technology will find further applications in scale-up systems such as automobiles, factories, aircrafts, and vessels where we see abundant thermal energy being wasted." This research result was published online in the March 14th issue of Energy & Environmental Science and was entitled "Wearable Thermoelectric Generator Fabricated on Glass Fabric." Youtube Link: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BlN9lvEzCuw&feature=youtu.be [Picture Captions] Caption 1: The picture shows a high-performance wearable thermoelectric generator that is extremely flexible and light. Caption 2: A thermoelectric generator developed as a wristband. The generator can be easily curved along with the shape of human body. Caption 3: KAIST’s thermoelectric generator can be bent as many as 120 times, but it still shows the same high performance.
Seung-Han Lee, a doctoral student in electrical engineering, receives the best paper award from ISQED 2014
Seung-Han Lee, a doctoral candidate in the department of electrical engineering at KAIST, received a Best Paper Award from the International Symposium on Quality Electronic Design (ISQED), a high-profile international conference started in 2000 to promote innovation and quality in electronic and engineering designs through inter- and multidisciplinary approaches. The award ceremony will take place at the 2014 ISQED on March 3-5, 2014 at the Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA, USA. Professor Chong-Min Kyung, an advisor to Seung-Han, expressed his excitement about his student's achievement. “This is the first time a Korean has ever received the best paper award at this academic conference. It’s great news to our student as well as to KAIST.” The topic of Lee’s research paper was dynamic cache data management for minimizing the energy consumption of three-dimensional multi-processor semiconductor chips.
KAIST Student Awarded Prize from Energy Saving Contest
Jun-Min Kwon, an undergraduate student in the Department of Chemistry at KAIST, was awarded a prize from the Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy, Republic of Korea, at the 35th Energy Saving Contest which was held on November 20. The student club he has been leading was also selected as one of the best groups by the Save Energy Save Earth (SESE), a volunteer organization supported by the Korea Energy Management Corporation and the Ministry of Knowledge Economy, Republic of Korea. Kwon began promoting energy conservation through a blog and participated in related meetings and workshops as a high school student to improve the understanding on the importance of energy saving and recycling.He also received awards from the Second National Assembly Forum on Climate Change, the Korean National Science Fair, as well as the Samsung Human Tech Paper Award.
Graduate Student at KAIST Awarded Best Prize at the 9th Inside Edge
Sun-Jin Choi, a Ph. D. candidate in the Department of Materials Science and Engineering at KAIST, under the guidance of Professor Il-Doo Kim, won the best prize at the 9th Inside Edge Contest hosted by Samsung Electro-Mechanics. Choi was awarded prize money totaling fifteen million won at the award ceremony held on November 22 at the Mirae Hall at the headquarters of Samsung Electro-Mechanics in Suwon. Choi’s research, titled “Exhaled Breath Sensor Arrays for the Non-invasive and Real-time Diagnosis of Diabetes by Detection of Acetone,” was recognized for its creativity and uniqueness.The Inside Edge is an international thesis competition which was started in 2005 to encourage and support creative research and potential technological development among young scientists and engineers. Sun-Jin Choi (left) and Professor Il-Doo Kim (right).
KAIST Takes Steps towards a Self-Sustainable Campus
KAIST has been selected for a $45-million national smart grid initiative organized under the Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy. Ninteen institutions will participate in the 2-year-long initiative. The consortium’s work is expected to take place from 2015 to 2017 after a review by the Ministry of Strategy and Finance. The Smart Grid Explansion Initiative which has been considered the future of electric power industry implements information and communications technology to conventional grid system to maximize energy efficiency. The ROK government has selected the Smart Grid Expansion Initiative as one of South Korea’s primary national projects and plans to implement it nationwide based on multiple demonstration projects in major cities including Jeju. KAIST plans to invest $45 million in developing systems for renewable energy power plants, efficient energy management, smart grid data, and electric vehicles to build the energy self-sustainable campus. It also hopes to contribute to fostering specialized talents and companies in energy management. Byoung-Yoon Kim, the vice-president for research at KAIST, expects that by 2017, KAIST will be able to dramatically improve its energy capacity especially during peak periods and gain energy efficiency around the campus. He hopes that the micro grid project at KAIST will set a new standard for the self-sustainable campus.
2013 EEWS Forum on National Energy Plan and Smart Grid Strategy
The Graduate School of Energy, Environment, Water, and Sustainability (EEWS) at KAIST hosted a forum on national energy planning and smart grid strategies on December 2 in the Jong-Hyun Choi Hall on KAIST’s Seoul campus. EEWS is a research and education program operated by KAIST to deal with the issues of energy, global warming, water, and sustainable growth.About 20 specialists including Jae-Kyu Lee, President of the Graduate School of Green Growth at KAIST; Kwang-Sik Choi, President of the EEWS Forum; Seong-Hoon Lee, Chairman of the Presidential Committee on Green Growth; Yang-Hoon Sohn, President of the Energy Economics Institute; and Jun-Dong Kim, Deputy Minister in the Ministry of Trade, Industry, and Energy, participated in the forum. Presentations and discussions were made in the fields of national energy plans, smart grid strategies, energy policy, as well as gas, electricity and sustainable energy.
The key to Alzheimer disease, PET-MRI made in Korea
Professor Kyu-Sung Cho - Simultaneous PET-MRI imaging system commercialization technology developed purely from domestic technology - - Inspiring achievement by KAIST, National NanoFab Center, Sogang University, Seoul National University Hospital – Hopes are high for the potential of producing domestic products in the field of state-of-the-art medical imaging equipment that used to rely on imported products. The joint research team (KAIST, Sogang University and Seoul National University) with KAIST Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering Professor Kyu-Sung Cho in charge, together with National Nanofab Institution (NNFC; Director Jae-Young Lee), has developed PET-MRI simultaneous imaging system with domestic technology only. The team successfully acquired brain images of 3 volunteers with the newly developed system. PET-MRI is integrated state-of-the-art medical imaging equipment that combines the advantages of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) that shows anatomical images of the body and Position Emission Tomography (PET) that analyses cell activity and metabolism. Since the anatomical information and functional information can be seen simultaneously, the device can be used to diagnose early onset Alzheimer’s disease and is essential in biological science research, such as new medicine development. The existing equipment used to take MRI and PET images separately due to the strong magnetic field generated by MRI and combine the images. Hence, it was time consuming and error-prone due to patient’s movement. There was a need to develop PET that functions within a magnetic field to create a simultaneous imaging system. The newly developed integral PET-MRI has 3 technical characteristics: 1. PET detector without magnetic interference, 2. PET-MRI integration system, 3.PET-MRI imaging processing. The PET detector is the most important factor and accounts for half the cost of the whole system. KAIST Professor Cho and NNFC Doctor Woo-Suk Seol’s team successfully developed the Silicon Photomultiplier (amplifies light coming into the radiation detector) that can be used in strong magnetic fields. The developed sensor has a global competitive edge since it optimises semiconductor processing to yield over 95% productivity and around 10% gamma radiation energy resolving power. Sogang University Department and Electrical Engineering Professor Yong Choi developed cutting edge PET system using a new concept of electric charge signal transmission method and imaging location distinction circuit. The creativity and excellence of the research findings were recognised and hence published on the cover of Medical Physics in June. Seoul National University Hospital Department of Nuclear Medicine Professor Jae-Sung Lee developed the Silicon Photomultiplier sensor based PET imaging reconstitution programme, MRI imaging based PET imaging revision technology and PET-MRI imaging integration software. Furthermore, KAIST Department of Electrical Engineering Professor Hyun-Wook Park was responsible for the development of RF Shielding technology that enables simultaneous installation of PET and MRI and using this technology, he developed a head coil for the brain that can be connected to PET for installation. Based on the technology describe above, the joint research team successfully developed PET-MRI system for brains and acquired PET-MRI integrated brain images from 3 volunteers last June. In particular, this system has the distinct feature of a detachable PET module and MRI head coil to the existing whole body MRI, so that PET-MRI simultaneous imaging is possible with low installation cost. Professor Cho said, “We have prepared the foundation of domestic commercial PET and the system has a competitive edge in the global market of PET-MRI system technology.” He continued, “It can reduce the cost of the increasing brain related disease diagnosis, including Alzheimer’s, dramatically.” Funded by Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy as an Industrial Foundation Technology Development Project (98 billion won in 7 years), the research applied for over 20 patents and 20 CSI theses. Figure 1.Brain phantom images from developed PET-MRI system Figure 2. Brain images from developed PET-MRI system Figure 3. Domestic PET-MRI clinical trial Figure 4. Head RF coil and PET detector inserted in MRI Figure 5. Insertion type PET detector module Figure 6. Silicon Photomultiplier sensor (Left) and flash crystal block (right) Figure7. Silicon Photomultiplier sensor Figure 8. PET detection principle
KAIST student wins Aerospace Student Papers Grand Prize
Dong-Il Yoo, a doctoral candidate under Professor Hyun-Chul Shim, at the Department of Aerospace Engineering, KAIST, has been awarded the Second Prize Award at the 11th Korea Aerospace Industries (KAI) Paper Contest. The award ceremony was held on October 30th at the media conference room at the KINTEX ADEX 2013 Exhibition in Seoul. Yoo"s paper, titled "A Study on Virtual Pursuit Point-based Autonomous Air Combat Guidance Law for UCAV," is highly regarded for originality and creativity. The Field Robotics Center at the KAIST Institute, where Yoo conducted his research, also received the first prize at the 7th KAI Paper Contest. The KAI Paper Contest was first organized in 2003 to promote academic interest and advance research and development in aerospace engineering among university students. The KAI Paper Contest is one of the most prestigious contests in Korea. It is sponsored by the Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy, the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport, the Korean Society for Aeronautical and Space Sciences, the Korea Aerospace Industries Association, and the Korea Civil Aviation Development Association. Dong-Il Yoo (left) and Professor Hyun-Chul Shim (right)
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