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Late Dr. Ryu Geun Chul's Achievements and Generous Contributions
First Doctor in the field of Korean Traditional Medicine The late Dr. Ryu was born in 1926 and is the father figure of Korea’s Traditional Medicine and is its First Doctor (1976 Kyung Hee University), and was the vice-professor of Kyung Hee University of Medicine, Vice-Director of Kyung Hee Institute of Korean Traditional Medicine, and was the first chairman of the Association of Korea Oriental Medicine. He developed the painless acupuncture administering device for the first time in Korea in 1962, and succeeded in anesthetizing a patient for cesarean procedure using acupuncture in 1972. He even was the first to receive a medical engineering doctorate degree from the Moscow National Engineering School in April of 1996 and developed a stroke rehabilitation machine. Korea’s Most Generous Donor Dr. Ryu surprised the world by donating 57.8billion Won worth of real estate to KAIST in August of 2008. Dr. Ryu revealed that his reason for donating such a huge sum to KAIST was due to its focused students giving him the belief that the future of Korea is at KAIST and that the development of science and technology is necessary for Korea to develop into a world class nation and KAIST is the institute most suitable to lead Korea in the field. Dr. Ryu lived on KAIST campus after donating his entire fortune and even established ‘KAIST scholars and spacemen health research center’ and ‘Dr. Ryu Health Clinic’ as he also wanted to donate his knowledge. Even when he was a professor at Moscow National Engineering University in the late 1990s he carried out free medical work throughout Korea and in recognition of his devoted work, he was named honorary citizen from Chun Ahn city, San Chung city, and DaeJeon city. In 2007 he donated 450million Won to Cheon Dong Elementary School in Chun Ahn city to build a gymnasium and an indoor golf practice range. Role as Science and Technology Public Relations Officer Dr. Ryu volunteered to numerous lectures and interviews after donation to advertise science and technology. His belief that the development of science and technology is necessary for Korea’s development was the driving force behind his efforts at increasing interest and support for the field of science and technology. In addition, through interviews with MBC, KBS, SBS, KTV, Joong Ang Newspapers, Dong Ah Newspaper and other media mediums, Dr. Ryu improved the public perception on donations whilst increasing the pride of scientists and researchers by highlighting their importance and the importance of science and technology. In recognition of Dr. Ryu’s efforts, he received the 43rd Science Day Science and Technology Creation Award, 2010 MBC Social Service Special Award, and 2010 ‘Proud Chung Cheong Citizen’ Award.
KAIST paves the way to commercialize flexible display screens
Source: IDTechEX, Feb. 28, 2011 KAIST paves the way to commercialize flexible display screens 28 Feb 2011 Transparent plastic and glass cloths, which have a limited thermal expansion needed for the production of flexible display screens and solar power cells, were developed by researchers at KAIST (Korea Advance Institute of Science & Technology). The research, led by KAIST"s Professor Byoung-Soo Bae, was funded by the Engineering Research Center under the initiative of the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology and the National Research Foundation. The research result was printed as the cover paper of "Advanced Materials". Professor Bae"s team developed a hybrid material with the same properties as fiber glass. With the material, they created a transparent, plastic film sheet resistant to heat. Transparent plastic film sheets were used by researchers all over the world to develop devices such as flexible displays or solar power cells that can be fit into various living spaces. However, plastic films are heat sensitive and tend to expand as temperature increases, thereby making it difficult to produce displays or solar power cells. The new transparent, plastic film screen shows that heat expansion index (13ppm/oC) similar to that of glass fiber (9ppm/oC) due to the presence of glass fibers; its heat resistance allows to be used for displays and solar power cells over 250oC. Professor Bae"s team succeeded in producing a flexible thin plastic film available for use in LCD or AMOLED screens and thin solar power cells. Professor Bae commented, "Not only the newly developed plastic film has superior qualities, compared to the old models, but also it is cheap to produce, potentially bringing forward the day when flexible displays and solar panels become commonplace. With the cooperation of various industries, research institutes and universities, we will strive to improve the existing design and develop it further." http://www.printedelectronicsworld.com/articles/kaist_paves_the_way_to_commercialize_flexible_display_screens_00003144.asp?sessionid=1
Interdisciplinary Research on World Environmental Problems with Humanities
KAIST’s Professor Michael Pak (department of Humanities and Social Sciences) has published a paper in ‘Environmental Science and Technology, ES&T’ and was made Lead Feature. His was the only paper published with a humanities background and his topic of discussion was ‘Environmentalism Then and Now: From Fears to Opportunities, 1970-2010’ in which he discussed the history of pro-environment activities, the patterns it showed, and its outlook. Professor Park noted that the problems and concerns over the environment is not a recent phenomenon. It took over 50 years for the environmental problems to resurface after being the ‘hot issue’ of the time during the industrial revolution in the 19th century. Professor Park deduced that there is a clear historical pattern. Professor Park insisted that the two areas of Environmental Research ‘Global Warming’ and ‘Change in Weather’. Especially because these two areas are rife with uncertainty as it is, and making policies based on inaccurate information is taking a gamble. Professor Park majored in history in UC Berkeley, received his masters’ and doctorate at Harvard University and was the professor at Massachusetts College of Art and Design before coming to KAIST at 2008.
Success in differentiating Functional Vascular Progenitor Cells (VPC)
KAIST’s Professor Han Yong Man successfully differentiated vascular progenitor cells from human embryonic stem cells and reversed differentiated stem cells. The research went beyond the current method of synthesis of embryonic body or mice cell ball culture and used the careful alteration of signal transmission system of the human embryonic stem cells to differentiate the formation of vascular progenitor cells. The team controlled the MEK/ERK and BMP signal transmission system that serves an important role in the self replication of human embryonic stem cells and successfully differentiated 20% of the cells experimented on to vascular progenitor cells. The vascular progenitor cells produced with such a method successfully differentiated into cells forming the endodermis of the blood vessel, vascular smooth muscle cells and hematopoietic cells in an environment outside of the human body and also successfully differentiated into blood vessels in nude mice. In addition, the vascular progenitor cell derived from human embryonic cells successfully formed blood vessels or secreted vascular growth factors and increased the blood flow and the necrosis of blood vessels when injected into an animal with limb ischemic illness. The research was funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology, 21st Century Frontier Research and Development Institution’s Cell Application Research Department and Professor Ko Kyu Young (KAIST), Professor Choi Chul Hee (KAIST), Professor Jeong Hyung Min (Cha Medical School) and Doctor Jo Lee Sook (Researcher in Korea Bio Engineering Institute) participated in it. The results of the research was published as the cover paper of the September edition of “Blood (IF:10.55)”, the American Blood Journal and has been patented domestically and has finished registration of foreign PCT. The results of the experiment opened the possibility of providing a patient specific cure using stem cells in the field of blood vessel illness.
KAIST developed a plastic film board less sensitive to heat.
The research result was made the cover of magazine, Advanced Materials and is accredited to paving the way to commercialize flexible display screens and solar power cells. Transparent plastic and glass cloths, which have a limited thermal expansion needed for the production of flexible display screens and solar power cells, were developed by Korean researchers. The research, led by KAIST’s Professor Byoung-Soo Bae, was funded by the Engineering Research Center under the initiative of the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology and the National Research Foundation. The research result was printed as the cover paper of ‘Advanced Materials’ which is the leading magazine in the field of materials science. Professor Bae’s team developed a hybrid material with the same properties as fiber glass. With the material, they created a transparent, plastic film sheet resistant to heat. Transparent plastic film sheets were used by researchers all over the world to develop devices such as flexible displays or solar power cells that can be fit into various living spaces. However, plastic films are heat sensitive and tend to expand as temperature increases, thereby making it difficult to produce displays or solar power cells. The new transparent, plastic film screen shows that heat expansion index (13ppm/oC) similar to that of glass fiber (9ppm/oC) due to the presence of glass fibers; its heat resistance allows to be used for displays and solar power cells over 250oC. Professor Bae’s team succeeded in producing a flexible thin plastic film available for use in LCD or AMOLED screens and thin solar power cells. Professor Bae commented, “Not only the newly developed plastic film has superior qualities, compared to the old models, but also it is cheap to produce, potentially bringing forward the day when flexible displays and solar panels become commonplace. With the cooperation of various industries, research institutes and universities, we will strive to improve the existing design and develop it further.”
2010 International Presidential Forum was held successfully.
On October 11th, the 2010 International Presidential Forum on “The Role of the Research University in an S&T Dominated Era: Expectation & Delivery” was held successfully at the Westin Chosun Hotel in Seoul. The third International Presidential Forum to be held, participants of the 2010 Presidential Forum engaged in an in-depth discussion about the direction that research universities should take in the 21st Century. On its opening, President Nam Pyo Suh delivered a congratulatory message saying, “This forum is a meaningful gathering where research universities will suggest role models and find ways research universities can contribute to the progress of mankind in this century.” Following, Lee Ki Jun, CEO of the Korean Federation of Science and Technology Societies said, “The common goal of the world’s research universities is to solve the problems mankind is facing together. I believe that the discussion we will hold today at the forum will point to the future direction of research universities.” “To produce next generation engineers meeting global standards, exchange and dual degree programs between universities must be strengthened,” said Lars Pallesen, President of the Technical University of Denmark. “Research universities must support the exchange between students beyond cultural and national borders to adapt to the global market.” Ichiro Okura, Vice President of Tokyo Institute of Technology, presented on the “Asian Science and Technology Pioneering Institutes of Research and Education, ASPIRE.” ASPIRE is a community created by the coalition between science and technology universities in the Far East. Its purpose is to contribute to sustainable global growth by educating high-quality human resources and lead Asia’s technology innovation based on science and technology development. “For research universities to solve today’s global issues, universities must create new ideas by performing fundamental studies and developing innovative technology. The financial resources of universities must be focused with choices based on results,” remarked President Suh. Zaini Ujang, Vice-President of the Universiti Teknologi Malaysia stated that “the Malaysian government is planning on converting from a ‘labor-intensive economy’ to an ‘innovative leading economy’ with the goal of joining the advanced countries by 2020. In today’s science and technology era where innovative technology is necessary, research universities have an important role of developing the knowledge environmental system to lead the world economy.” Vice-President Ujang then explained what strategies Malaysian research universities devised in the innovative leading economy era to create research universities that bring creativity and innovation. Tod A. Laursen, President of KUSTAR, said that “KUSTAR has a leading role in bringing science and technology and manpower necessary in converting the oil-centered economy of UAE to a knowledge-based economy. KUSTAR will continuously strengthen international cooperation to become not only the best engineering university in the Arab region but in the world.” At this year’s forum, thirty international presidents and vice presidents from 24 universities in 15 countries including Georgia Tech, Technical University of Denmark, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, University of Queensland, Tokyo University, Nanyang Technological University, University Teknologi Malaysia and Hong Kong Institute of Science and Technology along with forty national figures such as the presidents of Hanyang University and Handong Global University, governmental bureaucrats and representatives from national business and institutions participated.
A senior couple donated their fortune to KAIST, hoping their contribution to be used for the development of science and technology in Korea.
A couple living in Kyunggi Province, Chun-Sik Cho (86) and Chang-Gi Yoon (82), donated to KAIST a 10 billion won worth of real estate. The couple thought about giving away their fortune since retirement and finally made up their mind after becoming to know about their neighbor’s good deeds. The neighbor, Byung-Ho Kim, gave KAIST a 30 billion won worth of real estate last year. Influenced by Mr. Kim’s donation and their long-cherished wish to help others in need, the couple decided to transfer the ownership of their land to KAIST. They hoped that their contribution to be used for the development of science and technology in Korea. The couple, who survived through the Korean civil war in the early 1950s, recalled their old days, “We made through a harsh and difficult life right after the war. Everyone was poor and had nothing to wear or eat. We literally had to eat all sorts of grasses that were green on the ground. All of us had to work really hard to get out of despair resulted from the colonization of our nation by Japan and the subsequent civil war.” Mr. Cho added, “The development of science and technology in our nation really propelled the overall advancement of our society and helped to make today’s success that is enjoyed by the current generation of our nation. It is our greatest hope that our contribution will add a small help in our nation’s efforts to further advance the development of science and technology. I would like KAIST to do just that with our donation.” KAIST announced a plan to use their contribution for the establishment of a new graduate school specialized in green transportation and the development of related technology, called Green Transportation Graduate School. The university will name the new graduate school after the couple’s name in recognition of their goodwill. The Green Transportation Graduate School will host academic programs and conduct researches related to the future transportation that is based on a renewable energy source and provides answers to the current energy problems faced by mankind. Multidisciplinary and convergent studies will be implemented through collaborations between academia, governments, and industries. In the past four years, KAIST has witnessed a dramatic increase in the number and amount of donations received from all corners of Korean society and from around the world since President Nam Pyo Suh took the university’s top administrative office in 2006—1,004 in 2006; 2,158 in 2007; 3,091 in 2008; and 3,324 in 2009. Major contributions since 2006 30 billion Won by Moon-Sul Chung in July 2001 10 million USD by Byiung-Joon Park in September 2007 2.5 million USD by Neil Pappalardo in November 2007 57.8 billion Won by Geun-Chul Ryu in August 2008 30 billion Won by Byung-Ho Kim in August 2009
President of Israel visited KAIST on June 9, 2010.
President of Israel, Shimon Peres, visited KAIST today on June 9, 2010 to witness the development of science and technology in Korea and explore ways of establishing collaboration and cooperation with industries and universities between Korea and Israel. President Peres led a delegation consisted of the Israeli Mister of Industry, Trade, and Labor, the Minister of Communication, and 60 business leaders from the top companies in the security, infrastructure, communication, high-tech, and water industries. Upon their arrival to the campus, the Israeli delegation was greeted by KAIST’s humanoid robot, “HUBO,” and then moved to its branch campus, IT Convergence Campus, for a ride of Online Electric Vehicle (OLEV) that has been developed by KAIST. The OLEV receives the necessary power through the cable lines buried underground, so it can be provided with a constant and continuous supply of electricity while running or stopping. Between roads and OLEVs is nothing but space. There is no electrical wires intricately crossed underbody of the electric car or above the road. The pick-up equipment installed beneath the body of the electric car collects magnetic fields created around the underground cables, which then converts the filed into electricity. The OLEV’s wireless, non-contact charging system made it possible for a battery currently used for hybrid or pure electric cars on the market to be smaller and cheaper. President Peres expressed a great interest in the technology applied to the OLVE, quoting, “the OLEV system is indeed very impressive.” He talked about efforts being made in Israel with respect to the development of electric cars. The country plans to replace the conventional transportation system with electric cars by constructing a network of battery exchange stations and roadside charge points which allow the cars to be charged whenever they are parked. “Despite the different approach taken by the two nations for the development of electric cars, I believe that transforming the automobile industry from combustion engine to electric system is the right direction we should all follow. Without addressing the current transportation system that heavily dependent on natural resources, we will not be able to promote “green growth on a global scale,” added President Peres. In addition to electric cars, President Peres took up a considerable portion of his time to exchange ideas on how to expand cooperative relations between universities in Korea and Israel, specifically in the area of space, biotechnology, nanotechnology, high-tech, renewable and alternative energy, and the EEWS initiatives that have been implemented by KAIST to find answers to global issues such as climate change and depletion of natural resources. The EEWS stands for energy, environment, water, and sustainability. In response, the president of KAIST pledged to set up a stronger and greater tie with research universities in Israel, particularly called for more collaboration between KAIST and Technion-Israel Institute of Technology. Also, the Israeli delegation had a tour for several Korean research and development centers in Daedeok Innopolis, located in the City of Daejeon, which is the 2nd largest science and research complex in Korea. Shimon Peres, the 9th president of Israel, held many of important government positions in Israel, among other things, Prime Minster and Minister of Defense. He won Nobel Peace Prize in 1994, together with Yitzhak Rabin and Yasser Arafat for the conclusion of a peace agreement, Oslo Accords, between Israel and Palestine Liberation Organization.
A donation to KAIST by a gambler
The Korea Herald ran an editorial on the news that a man who won the biggest-ever jackpot in Korean casino history on Saturday, May 15, 2010, decided to donate the entire prize money to the Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST). Below is the full text of the editorial published on May 18, 2010. http://www.koreaherald.com/opinion/Detail.jsp?newsMLId=20100518000648 The Korea Herald: [Editorial] Gambler’s donation 2010-05-18 18:09 KAIST, Korea’s leading research university, often makes news with donations from a variety of benefactors who wish to help develop science and technology in Korea with money they earned through their careers. The list of donors, which includes farmers, securities dealers, medical doctors, foreign businesspeople and popular entertainers, now has one unusual entry, a gambler. Ahn Seung-pil, 60, may not be exactly a “gambler” – at least not a professional one. He has visited Kangwon Land, a casino located in the mountain region of Jeongseon, Gangwon Province, only a few times since it opened in 2000 as the only place Korean nationals could gamble. Ahn, who runs a small textile business in Seoul, hit the jackpot of 766 million won (about $665,000), the largest amount ever at Kangwon Land or from any slot machine at a Korean casino. He said he was motivated to donate the money to KAIST in Daejeon City when he watched a television program after returning home, in which a professor emphasized the importance of advancing science and technology in the country. He had incurred heavy debts during the 1997 economic crisis and has yet to clear them all, but he thought of using the prize money for a good cause. The TV program guided him to KAIST, said Ahn, who has “not had a high level of education.” Korea is known worldwide for its people’s strong zeal for university education. Parents do whatever they can to send their children to good universities but are so exhausted before the entrance that they barely pay the tuition once they get there. Universities have to rely mainly on tuition and meager subsidies from foundations or the state treasury. Private donations are rare, compared to European or American universities. Major universities complain that members of the alumni societies are rather indifferent to calls for donation. The majority of donors who give significant amounts are people who weren’t lucky enough to go to university, such as Ahn Seung-pil.
News Article: Naro space rocket getting ready for second launch, April 12, 2010
News Article on KIAST published on April 12, 2010 The Korea Herald, 2010-04-12 17:07 Naro space rocket getting ready for second launch By Bae Hyun-jung (firstname.lastname@example.org) The Ministry of Education, Science and Technology is checking on the second launch of Naro, Korea’s first space rocket, as all the necessary parts were transferred to the launch center last week. The Science Technology Satellite No. 2 was transferred last Thursday from the KAIST Satellite Technology Research Center in Daejeon to the Naro Space Center in South Jeolla Province, said ministry officials. The solid-fuel second-stage rocket reached the center last Monday and the liquid-fuel first-stage rocket did so on March 23. The latter was manufactured in Russia’s Khrunichev State Space Science and Production Center. The satellite, a small one weighing 100 kilograms, was co-developed by the Korea Aerospace Research Institute, KAIST SaTReC and the Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology. It is to revolve around the Earth for two years collecting data on climate change by gauging the hydrogen content in the atmosphere, said officials. “With all the crucial parts ready here in the center, we have officially kicked off our final investigation before setting the details of the second Naro launch,” said a ministry official. Second Vice Minister Kim Joong-hyun last week visited the Naro center to attend the overall inspection on all facilities related to the rocket launch. The date has not yet been set for the second launch but will be fixed within this month, said officials. With the general inspection completed on the facilities, the first-stage rocket and the satellite will be assembled and the combination will be joined by the second-stage rocket in May. The first launching attempt ended in failure in August due to faulty electrical wiring or a mechanical problem in the fairing separation mechanism, according to panels. The two fairings -- used to cover and protect the satellite placed on top of the Naro -- failed to separate timely and thus stopped the satellite from gaining sufficient velocity to reach its planned orbit. Korea has so far spent 502.4 billion won ($428.1 million) on the Naro project since it began in August 2002.
New drug targeting method for microbial pathogens developed using in silico cell
A ripple effect is expected on the new antibacterial discovery using “in silico” cells Featured as a journal cover paper of Molecular BioSystems A research team of Distinguished Professor Sang Yup Lee at KAIST recently constructed an in silico cell of a microbial pathogen that is resistant to antibiotics and developed a new drug targeting method that could effectively disrupt the pathogen"s growth using the in silico cell. Hyun Uk Kim, a graduate research assistant at the Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, KAIST, conducted this study as a part of his thesis research, and the study was featured as a journal cover paper in the February issue of Molecular BioSystems this year, published by The Royal Society of Chemistry based in Europe. It was relatively easy to treat infectious microbes using antibiotics in the past. However, the overdose of antibiotics has caused pathogens to increase their resistance to various antibiotics, and it has become more difficult to cure infectious diseases these days. A representative microbial pathogen is Acinetobacter baumannaii. Originally isolated from soils and water, this microorganism did not have resistance to antibiotics, and hence it was easy to eradicate them if infected. However, within a decade, this miroorganism has transformed into a dreadful super-bacterium resistant to antibiotics and caused many casualties among the U.S. and French soldiers who were injured from the recent Iraqi war and infected with Acinetobacter baumannaii. Professor Lee’s group constructed an in silico cell of this A. baumannii by computationally collecting, integrating, and analyzing the biological information of the bacterium, scattered over various databases and literatures, in order to study this organism"s genomic features and system-wide metabolic characteristics. Furthermore, they employed this in silico cell for integrative approaches, including several network analysis and analysis of essential reactions and metabolites, to predict drug targets that effectively disrupt the pathogen"s growth. Final drug targets are the ones that selectively kill pathogens without harming human body. Here, essential reactions refer to enzymatic reactions required for normal metabolic functioning in organisms, while essential metabolites indicate chemical compounds required in the metabolism for proper functioning, and their removal brings about the effect of simultaneously disrupting their associated enzymes that interact with them. This study attempted to predict highly reliable drug targets by systematically scanning biological components, including metabolic genes, enzymatic reactions, that constitute an in silico cell in a short period of time. This research achievement is highly regarded as it, for the first time, systematically scanned essential metabolites for the effective drug targets using the concept of systems biology, and paved the way for a new antibacterial discovery. This study is also expected to contribute to elucidating the infectious mechanism caused by pathogens. "Although tons of genomic information is poured in at this moment, application research that efficiently converts this preliminary information into actually useful information is still lagged behind. In this regard, this study is meaningful in that medically useful information is generated from the genomic information of Acinetobacter baumannii," says Professor Lee. "In particular, development of this organism"s in silico cell allows generation of new knowledge regarding essential genes and enzymatic reactions under specific conditions," he added. This study was supported by the Korean Systems Biology Project of the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology, and the patent for the development of in silico cells of microbial pathogens and drug targeting methods has been filed. [Picture 1 Cells in silico] [Picture 2 A process of generating drug targets without harming human body while effectively disrupting the growth of a pathogen, after predicting metabolites from in silico cells]
KAIST Commencement 2010 was held on February 26, 2010.
A total of 2,205 are the newly conferred degree holders: 479 for Ph.D., 988 for Master’s, and 738 for B.S. degrees. Since its foundation in 1971, KAIST has so far produced 38,882 graduates. KAIST held the 2010 graduation ceremony on February 26, 2010 at its newly built place, called “Sports Complex Building.” Approximately 2,500 guests including Minister Byung-Man Ahn, Education, Science and Technology Ministry; Chairman Mun-Sul Jeong, KAIST Board of Trustees; representatives from the KAIST alumni; graduating students; and faculty joined the ceremony to celebrate the commencement. Honorary Doctorates At the ceremony, KAIST has conferred four honorary doctorate degrees in recognition of recipients’ contribution to the advancement of science and technology and development of science and engineering education in Korea and the world. The recipients were Arden L. Bement Jr., Director of US National Science Foundation; Lars Pallesen, President of Technical University of Denmark; Donald C.W. Kim, Chairman of AMKOR A&E, Inc.; and Beang-Ho Kim, Chairman of Seojeon Farm. Graduation Honors: President’s List Dong-Han Kim, majoring in Mathematical Sciences, College of Natural Science, was nominated as President’s List. He received an award for an outstanding academic achievement from the Minister of Education, Science and Technology and gave a gradation speech on behalf of the graduating class. Birthplace of Promising Young Scientists in Korea KAIST has earned a reputation for training the next generation of young scientists in Korea, and its 2010 Commencement has confirmed such fame. Among 479 Ph.D. degree holders, 151 (31%) students are in their 20s. The youngest who has received a doctoral degree is Jin-Ah Lee, graduating from College of Life Science and Bioengineering. Commencing International Students Among international students graduating this year, two students from India received their doctoral degrees in Biological Sciences: Kataru Raghu Prasad and Chaya Mohan. They are a married couple and now both postdoctoral researchers, working at KAIST labs. Wearing academic regalia and standing together to take a picture, the couple said, “We would definitely recommend KAIST to prospective international students because it offers the best education and research facilities comparable to those of any leading universities in the world. With the knowledge and experience acquired from studying at KAIST, we hope to contribute to the development of our country in the future.”
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